Executive Search: A

Ability test: This is a test used by companies to discern whether a potential employee has the
logic, reasoning or other tested skill required to take on the job.

Acqui-Hiring: (acquisition and hiring) purchasing a company in order to acquire its employees, while the product of the acquired company becomes secondary. This is a relatively new concept that is becoming more common, especially in the tech industry.

Active candidate: An individual seeking immediate employment. Active candidates are usually unemployed, unhappy with their current employers, or facing unemployment in the near future.

Active Candidates: People seeking immediate employment. Active Candidates are usually unemployed or facing unemployment in the near future. They may be young people looking for their first full-time job, people whose positions were terminated or people who are very unhappy with their current employer.

Active job searching: An active job search involves an individual preparing a resume, searching for
openings at companies and sending in a resume to those companies. Then, if the
candidate is successful at this stage and gets an interview, the candidate prepares
and attends the interview.

Actively Passive: someone who makes themselves “findable” but isn’t actively looking for a new career.

Adverse action:  An adverse action occurs when an employer behaves in a way that puts an individual or a group of people at a disadvantage as far as equal employment opportunities go. For example, take an employee who files a lawsuit against his or her employer. If the employer retaliates by refusing to move ahead with a planned promotion for the employee, that behavior is likely an adverse action. In addition, federal courts in recent years have heightened their scrutiny of employer adverse actions under the Fair Credit Reporting Act. Under this act, employers are required to follow specific procedures such as pre-adverse action notices in situations such as using a background check or credit report to deny employment to a person based the findings of the report.

Adverse impact:  An adverse impact results from employer practices that seem to be neutral but that disproportionately and negatively affect protected groups such as women and minorities. It is possible for an adverse impact to occur at any stage of the employment process, with stages including hiring, training, performance reviews, promotions and layoffs. A practical means of measuring if an adverse impact exists is to evaluate whether a group’s selection rate falls below 80 percent of the group that has the highest selection rate. For example, if you give a hiring test for job applicants, and the pass rate of a protected group is 80 percent of the pass rate of the group with the highest selection rate, the hiring test may have an adverse impact on that protected group.

Adverse selection:  An employer is practicing adverse selection when it has approaches or policies that lead to negative or unfavorable treatment toward a person or a group of people who are in a protected group such as women or minorities. Adverse selection can happen at any point in the employment process such as hiring, training, promotions, transfers and layoffs. For instance, if an employer requires that its workers pass a certain test to be promoted and members of a protected group pass at rates of less than 80 percent of the highest-scoring group, it is possible that the employer is practicing adverse selection. Under another definition, adverse selection also applies to a concept in the insurance industry. For example, it occurs when buyers have better information than sellers as to a particular product, say, life insurance, and so it is the consumers costing the most who generally purchase the product.

Advisory committee:  An advisory committee is a group of people, commonly volunteers, who are either internal and/or external to a business or organization, who meet to advise the business or organization on issues. An advisory committee is often long term, has no power to make decisions and generally approaches its advisory role by identifying certain issues, investigating and discussing them, and proposing solutions and recommendations. To be effective, an advisory committee should consist of qualified, knowledgeable members who are intrinsically motivated. They should meet regularly and communicate and uphold clearly communicated expectations. One type of advisory committee is a search advisory committee, which works to find job applicants. It is important for a search advisory committee to safeguard against conscious and unconscious biases as it goes about the hiring process.

Affected Class:  Affected Class is a term used to describe a group of potential, present or former employees who are negatively affected by an employer’s discriminatory policies or practices.

Affirmative Action: Affirmative action is a group of laws and guidelines that are meant to stop and correct discrimination in hiring in regards to race, race, ethnicity, disabilities, military background, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and/or gender.

Affirmative Action (AA):  Affirmative action is a policy or practice set forth by an employer that aims to counter the effects of past and present discrimination in the employment context.

Affirmative Action Clauses:  Affirmative action clauses are legally mandated provisions that all federal contracts or subcontracts for amounts of $10,000 or greater must include.

Affirmative Action Plan (AAP):  An affirmative action plan consists of specific procedures that are designed to offset the impact of prior discrimination against protected classes.

After-acquire evidence:  After-acquired evidence is a term used to designate evidence discovered by an employer accused of workplace discrimination that ex-post-facto justifies the employer’s adverse conduct towards the employee.

Age Discrimination: The act of discriminating against someone due to his or her age.

Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA):  The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) is a law that prohibits discrimination against workers who are 40 years of age and older in any decision related to employment.

Agency Recruiter: An agency recruiter that works at a recruiting agency. Their job is to find and place candidates into roles at various companies.

AI Recruitment: the application of artificial intelligence to source, engage and interact with candidates. This technology is designed to automate repetitive, high-volume tasks so recruiters can focus on other elements of their jobs.

Allowances: Payments made to employees to cover expenses and usually treated as part of pay and taxed accordingly. In Asia, most executives are provided with a greater number of such allowances than in other regions. Examples include: automobile allowance (often including fuel and driver), housing allowance and executive healthcare coverage for family. Expatriates posted to Asia are often provided with some or all of the following as part of their expatriate package: private school fees for children, air-flights tickets to home country for family and relocation expenses.

Alternative dispute resolution (ADR):  Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is a procedure that is voluntarily chosen in order to resolve conflicts or disputes between groups, individuals, or labor-management.

American Staffing Association (ASA): The American Staffing Association (ASA) promotes the interests of the industry through “legal
and legislative advocacy, public relations, education, and the establishment of high standards of
ethical conduct.”

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990:  The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 is an anti-discrimination law that prohibits employers from refusing to hire someone because of a disability.

Analytical thinking: Analytical thinking is a type of thinking which uses logical reasoning and deduction to
discern the meaning of something or to solve a problem.

Anti-nepotism policy:  An anti-nepotism policy is a policy that restricts two or more family members from being employed at the same time by the same employer.

Applicant:  An applicant is an individual who tries to find work at an employer’s place of business. The applicant must meet certain standards that are specifically defined by the employer.

Applicant files:  Applicant files contain all documents that a potential candidate submits when applying for a position. They include details related to the employment lifecycle, from interviewing, selecting, pursuing, and hiring applicants. It can also be used for on-boarding new hires and maintaining all the related forms and files. Most human resources departments keep all the documents for candidates in one file to make it convenient for HR staff, directors, and interview team members to locate information quickly. The key to effective recruiting is establishing a functional system to organize documents received from job seekers, such as resumes, reference lists, and supplemental documents.

Applicant flow data:  Applicant flow data is the analysis of selection rate variances for a particular job among classifications. All institutions receiving federal contracts are obligated by federal law to track gender and race data for all candidates submitting applications for employment to the business. By law, the information cannot be a component of the employment determination, nor can it be used for consideration. It is solely for record keeping and statistical purposes. Applicant flow data is an essential tool for analyzing the inclusiveness and integrity of the federal government’s recruitment goals. Employers must provide applicants the option to decline to submit the supplemental classification information.

Applicant flow log:  An applicant flow log must be maintained by all federal contractors. It is a compilation of all required data necessary for administering an adverse impact analysis. It determines positions open during a reporting period, the applicant, and the candidate hired for the opening. Information submitted by each applicant must be included in the applicant flow log, along with details referencing race, sex, veteran status, and so on. The contractor is obligated to gather this data, but when requesting it, candidates should be informed the information is not used in the decision-making process. It is solely for statistical record keeping purposes only.

Applicant pool:  Applicant pools are the people who have applied for open positions with an organization. The employer utilizes the applicant pool for the selection process by reducing the number of candidates to a short list. If there is a large number of individuals in an applicant pool, a long list may need to precede the short list. Applicant pools may be enormous for some jobs, with thousands of qualified candidates. This produces difficulties for hiring managers who need to distinguish between candidates to create a short list. Determining relevant selection criteria that meet the job requirements are essential to decreasing an applicant pool to candidates suitable for the position.

Applicant tracking:  Applicant tracking enables Human Resources staff, department managers, and directors to filter applications based on criteria for recruitment purposes. A software application produced to help businesses recruit workers more efficiently is known as an ATS. It is useful for posting job openings on a corporate site or job board, resume screenings, and creating email invitations to interview potential candidates. Additional characteristics such as particular applicant tracking, automated resume ranking, request tracking, custom data applications, multilingual capabilities, and pre-screening response tracking may be included. Estimates indicate that approximately half of all mid-sized businesses and nearly all large organizations utilize applicant tracking.

Applicant Tracking System (ATS): the software used to automate many of the processes needed to manage the recruitment process. In many cases, an ATS automatically filters applications based on given criteria such as keywords, skills, former employers, years of experience and schools attended. The ATS then creates a list of candidates applications that match the given criteria.

Applicants: People who proactively apply for job openings in organizations. Applicants are considered highly motivated job-seekers and active candidates. They may be recent graduates or immigrants looking for their first job, unemployed professionals, people dissatisfied with their current employer or people who change jobs regularly.

Application service provider (ASP):  An application service provider is a third-party group established to deliver commercial software applications and additional services related to such software and do so online. Companies use ASPs to outsource either a portion or the entirety of their information technology requirements. Using ASPs has risen in popularity with small business owners who lack the resources for full-fledged IT departments as well as larger businesses that desire options for outsourcing. Examples of uses for ASPs include offering local area network capabilities offered off premises, remote access serving for enterprise using and affordable specialized applications. Examples of some of the more well-known ASPs include Qwest, SAP and Hewlett-Packard.

Appointing Officer: Appointing officers are chosen by the board of director of a company and run its day-to-day operations. They are often part of the process of choosing a candidate to fill a vacancy. Appointing officers usually include a president, a treasurer or chief financial officer, and/or a secretary.

Apprenticeship:  An apprenticeship is an training program for individuals who desire to become recognized in a specific trade or craft and do so in a way that adheres to the most current standards. The person completing the apprenticeship is known as an apprentice, and this individual learn the necessary skills of her or his chosen trade by carrying out common tasks for a predetermined length of time. Training is administered by a seasoned trade or craftsman. While an apprenticeship could be compared to classroom learning, apprentices receive pay while learning how to become experts in their trades. Examples of industries that offer apprenticeships include healthcare, food preparation/serving, manufacturing and public safety.

Aptitude Testing: test(s) made to assess a candidate’s potential and thinking capabilities in order to determine whether or not they are qualified. These can also be used to prove if a candidate is being truthful about their skills listed on their resume.

Arbitration:  Arbitration is defined as a method of resolving a dispute with the professional help of a neutral third party who specializes in resolving labor-management, collective or individual conflicts and delivering a final legal decision. What sets the dispute resolution method apart from a court case is that it’s not as formal and is more flexible. What’s more is arbitration offers a faster scheduling time when compared to a traditional trial. During the resolution, the neutral third party, known as the arbitrator, listens to all sides of the dispute and becomes both the jury and the judge. There are times where arbitration is legally required, and others where it’s fully voluntary.

Assessment center: An assessment center is an extensive interview/assessment of candidates which can
involve aptitude and ability testing, as well as the completion of different exercises
which relate to the job.

Associate: When “Associate” appears at the end of a title, it usually refers to a junior-level role, such as “Customer Service Associate.” When it appears at the beginning of a title, it usually refers to a junior level of that role, such as “Associate Manager.”

ATS: ATS, or Applicant Tracking System, is a technology solution that allows companies to keep track of candidates and their application information. An ATS usually automates some aspects of the recruiting process and allows for keyword searches within candidate applications. The ATS can also be used to gather key recruiting metrics.

Attorney:  An attorney is an authorized professional who practices the law and represents both defendants and plaintiffs with the intention of providing them with legal counsel or acting as a proxy during legal proceedings. As far as attorneys who focus their practice on employment and labor, they mainly handle workplace disputes that deal with demotions, terminations, discriminations claims and suspensions without pay. Employees might wish to seek out the professional assistance of an employment lawyer when an employer has broken employment laws, they have been punished for reporting wrongdoing in the workplace, their employer has misclassified them or they aren’t being paid their earned wages.

Attrition:  In the realm of human resources, attrition is defined as both the voluntary and involuntary reduction of a company’s workforce through deaths, employee retirements, transfers, resignations and terminations. While some attrition is to be expected in normal business operations, a high level of reduction can lead to problems and a lack of manpower. Some of the ways human resources professionals do their part to keep top-performing employees happy and attrition rates low is design and implement company compensation programs, motivation systems and a company culture. Besides retaining top performing employees, business owners try to keep their attrition rates as low as possible to keep from having to spend money on advertising for, hiring, training and completing paperwork for new employees.

At-will Employment:  At-will employment is a contractual agreement an employer would have with a worker in which the employee could have his or her employment terminated for any reason. Therefore, an employer would not have to come up for a reason why the employee is being let go. Conversely, an employee generally has the right to leave without providing prior notice and for any reason. Employers from any state except Montana are allowed to carry out this practice. Even if employees are hired at-will, they still cannot be discriminated against or fired for reasons that would go against The Civil Rights Act. Employees will usually need to sign agreements at the beginning of their employment stating that they understand they are being hired at-will and that they can be let go without notice.

Executive Search: B

Back Pay:  Back pay refers to any prior wages or benefits an employee is due to a new employment practice or a retroactive pay increase. For example, if an employee were to receive a promotion that comes with an increase in salary but he or she does not receive that pay raise for a month, then he or she would receive back pay in the subsequent paycheck. Sometimes businesses will be forced to provide workers with back pay due to the court order. If a court finds that a company performed wage violations, then the company will be required to give any affected employees back pay to remedy the situation. In order to ensure back pay is given, the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor may get involved.

Backfill: an open position created by the vacation of the incumbent.

Background Check: A background check is a review of a person’s criminal and occasionally financial records. Background checks are used by employers to judge a candidate’s hireability, character, and fitness for the position. Background checks now often include a deep dive into Social Media accounts.

Background Check/Investigation:  A background check or investigation is generally performed by hiring managers in order to see if a job candidate has a criminal record. These investigations are also a good way to ensure people’s academic records are what they say they are and to look into people’s credit history. Any organization can choose to perform these checks from private institutions to government agencies. They are most often performed by parties that need high security such as airports, schools, hospitals and financial institutions. These checks are also a good way to ensure that an individual is who he or she says and that there is nothing in the person’s past that could potentially reflect poorly on the company. Most of the time, it costs a fee to run a check.

Background screening/Pre-employment screening: Background screening is a combination of two things; a background check (as defined
above) and a reference check.

Balanced scorecard: This is a type of report which keeps track of the different tasks and responsibilities
that each employee within a company is responsible for and executes.

Baldridge National Quality Award:  The Baldridge National Quality Award is a distinction awarded to organizations in the United States that have done outstanding work in the fields of non-profit, education, health care, and business. It was first awarded in 1988, and it is the only distinction of its kind for both private and public organizations. It is given to a company by the President of the United States, and the Baldridge Performance Excellence Program administers the distinction. During any year, up to 18 of these awards can be given. This award is named after Malcolm Baldridge who was the Secretary of Commerce from 1981 until 1987. The purpose of this award is to promote awareness about the excellent work being done by various businesses and to increase corporate competitiveness.

Ban the box: This is a movement which aims to remove the checkbox which asks if an applicant
has a criminal record, to stop discrimination against ex-offenders.

Bankruptcy:  For businesses, bankruptcy is a way for debtors to eliminate any debts or to make it easier to repay those debts. There are two types of bankruptcies that companies can file for

Base Wage Rate: This is simply the compensation an employee will receive in exchange for services. It is usually looked at as the monthly salary or hourly wage paid for a job, not including benefits, bonuses, raises or overtime.

Behavioral competency: Having behavioral competency means you have the necessary ability in areas
relating to teamwork, technical knowledge, people skills, etc. to be seen as a viable
candidate for a position.

Behavioral Interview: Behavioral interview questions seek to predict a candidate’s suitability for a role based on their behavior in past jobs. Behavioral questions usually start out with, “Tell me about a time when….” or “Describe a situation when….”

Behavioral risk management: This is the management of risk factors relating to the behavior of employees in the
workplace, particularly in relation to the negative impact these behavioral factors have
on the productivity of the company.

Behavioral-Based Interview:  A behavioral-based interview is when an employer asks a job candidate questions about past behavior in order to determine if he or she actually has experience carrying out specific tasks. This interviewing technique has steadily grown popular among businesses that want to acquire more information about applicants before hiring someone on. Many interview questions can generally be answered with a simple “Yes” or “No.” However, with behavioral-based interview questions, the interviewee essentially has to tell a story of a specific incident at a previous place of employment in order to showcase his or her proficiency in the area being inquired about. These types of questions are also good for injecting a certain amount of spontaneity into the interviewing process because candidates may have not necessarily prepared the story out beforehand.

Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS):  Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales are used to rate employee performance. On a scale from five to nine, employees are appraised based on quantifiable ratings, critical incidents of performance and overall narratives. All of these are combined in order to give someone either a poor, moderate or good performance rating. BARS were created due to the rampant dissatisfaction that was associated with more subjective appraisal methods. The primary benefit of using BARS is that they are more accurate than other systems. There is far less chance for BARS to be affected by leniency, discrimination or unreliability because a focus is being placed on specific behaviors an employee does as opposed to rating someone on generalizations.  Employers will need to follow several specific steps in order to accurately create their BARS.

Behavioural Interviewing: Interview format that seeks to understand and assess the career history and performance of candidates under the premise that the past is the best predictor of the future. Questions in behavioural interviews try to probe candidates' conduct in different situations, for example: "how did you achieve these results" and "what did you do to overcome this unexpected problem." Behavioural interviewing is considered the highly useful by most hiring managers and recruiters especially for management candidates who have strong career histories.

Benchmark candidate: A person who represents the “ideal candidate.” The recruiter and search chair interview the benchmark candidate to gauge whether the job description is clear and correct. This interview occurs before the recruiter actively begins the search.

Benchmark interview: An interview with the “ideal candidate,” which is used to gauge the recruiter’s understanding of fit.

Benefits:  When it comes to employment, a benefit is any additional advantage an employee receives from his or her employer. Everyone receives a wage, but benefits go beyond that and include items such as vacation time, pensions and health insurance coverage. Benefits can fall under different categories. Fringe benefits include paid holidays and retirement plans. They are tax-deductible for employers and remain untaxed for the employees. There are also retirement benefits that are offered by the Social Security Administration. This is provided to individuals who have reached the age of retirement and have accumulated enough credits to be eligible for the program. Benefits are generally offered as a way to entice individuals to apply to an open position within a company and to retain great employees.

Benefits (benefits package): Employee benefits include perks (aside from salary) that come with a position. This
can include: health insurance, dental cover and gym access. The perks an employee
receives is specific to the company and can differ based on an employee’s position
within the company.

Bereavement Leave:  Bereavement leave is a policy many companies have so that employees can deal with the grief associated with losing a loved one. Bereavement leaves applies to an employee losing a family member, including a spouse, parent, child, sibling or any other relationship. The employee will need to inform his or her employer of the death immediately, and three days of paid leave are generally granted. This allows the employee to grieve in private and focus on his or her well-being while not focusing on work-related responsibilities. This also gives the grieving party time to plan and attend the funeral. All full-time employees should be capable of taking advantage of this policy should the need arise. Exceptions include a business that has unusual staffing requirements, and if that is the case, employees should be able to use any available vacation time.

Billable Hours: the hours (of the 40 hour workweek) which are billed to a specific client.

Blacklisted Candidates: People who are prevented from being considered for open positions because of a breach of confidence. Examples include: substance abuse, failed previous assessment, overstated qualifications, didn't show up for previous interviews, etc.

Blended Search Agreement: Combines both retained and contingency elements in an executive search engagement. There is usually an initial retainer (non-refundable) with further payments due once defined deliverables are accomplished or a balloon payment at the end once the position is filled.

Blended Workforce: A workforce comprised of traditional full-time, part-time, temporary employees as well as independent contractors and interim talent.

Blind Screening: Key candidate information such as name and gender are eliminated as applications are screened.

Blocked Candidates: Search firms avoid targeting employees of client organizations for new search engagements because of guarantee commitments. Employees of organizations that are current or recent clients are blocked from being considered candidates. In addition, candidates who are actively under consideration by one client should be blocked from being considered by another client simultaneously. (Related concepts are Off-Limits and Parallel Processing.)

Blue Collar Workers:  A blue collar worker refers to someone whose profession requires them to perform a good amount of manual labor. Some of the most common industries that employ these individuals include warehousing, oil fields, firefighting, construction, manufacturing, sanitation, custodial work and technical installations. Most blue collar workers are paid hourly wages although some individuals with these jobs receive an annual salary or get paid by the job. Blue collar jobs are highly specialized and require someone to be skilled in performing a certain task. However, for the most part, they do not require any formal education. A high school diploma or GED is typically all that is required for this kind of work. Most blue collar workers need to wear durable clothing such as cotton or canvas so that it will remain viable even after it has seen some use.

Body-Snatcher: A slang phrase for recruiter.

Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ):  A Bone Fide Occupational Qualification refers to an attribute that employers look for in employees that in other contexts would be viewed as discrimination. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 forbids employers from refusing employment or termination employment of a worker based on sex, religion, national origin and race. There is also the Age Discrimination in Employment Act that forbids employers from discriminating against individuals over the age of 40. However, there may be instances where a business needs a certain type of employee, so the organization would be allowed to advertise that when looking for new hires. An example would be a private high school that teachers a certain religious doctrine. They would be allowed to only hire people who are part of that denomination even though in other circumstances, that would be viewed as discrimination.

Bonus Hours: any remaining hours (of the 40-hour workweek) a team member has available which are not billed specifically to the client but worked as extra “free” hours for a client.

Bonus Plan:  A bonus plan is an incentive offered to employees in which they can earn extra money by abiding by various requirements. Business owners are allowed to set whatever requirement they deem fit in order to receive the bonus. For example, bonuses may only be open to full-time employees. The bonus can either take the form of a flat-rate sum, or it can be a percentage of the employee’s salary. Many employers choose to have these programs in place as a means to motivate and incentivize workers. One of the most common forms a bonus plan takes shape is an “end of the year” bonus where everyone receives a certain amount. Bonus plans in conjunction with other type of employee benefits can be highly useful in retaining strong workers.

Boolean Search: a process that allows the user to insert words or phrases such as AND, OR, NOT to limit, broaden, or define the search results. Boolean search allows the combination of five different elements to conduct a search.

Boolean search in recruitment: This is an advanced search method whereby an individual can insert words such as
‘not’, ‘or’ & ‘and’ to make the search more specific. Employers can use this type of
search to quickly filter out candidates whose resumes don’t show all the necessary
criteria required for a position.

Boutique: Executive search firm that is operated in a hands-on manner by a small number of experienced partners. The migration of senior consultants from large search firms to set up their own boutique firms is one of the main reasons behind the steady decline in market share of the large firms. In emerging countries of Asia, boutique search firms dominate country markets while large international firms are almost non-existent.

Boutique recruiting firm: An executive search firm that is operated in a hands-on manner by a small number of experienced partners. Many senior consultants from large firms have jumped ship to set up their own boutique firms. This is a main reason behind the steady decline in market share for larger firms.

Boutique Search Firm: An executive search firm that utilizes a white glove service model.

Branding Strategy: An employer branding strategy is usually put together in tandem with an executive search firm. It is utilized to make the employer look more appealing to high level talent.

Breach of Contract:  A breach of contract refers to an incident where two parties sign a legally-binding document, and when one of the parties does not fulfill their portion of the agreement, they are said to be in breach of contract. Someone can also be in breach of contract if he or she exhibits behavior that indicates the individual will be unable to carry out the requirements set forth by the agreement. When this happens, judicial intervention can take place. One party can sue another for damages that were incurred due to the breach. It is also possible that the breaching party can be ordered to fulfill the tasks set forth by the contract. Various types of breaches can take place, including anticipatory breaches, fundamental breaches and material breaches.

Bundling: A current management trend of combining responsibilities for 2 or even 3 executive positions with one super-manager. In many companies, finance and HR or finance and IT are being combined under one manager -- and sometimes all 3 functions. Many companies in Southeast Asia are giving country management responsibilities for 2 or 3 countries to a single person -- combining multiple senior positions into one.

Burden of Proof:  The burden of proof comes into play when an individual is taken to court. It refers to either party’s job to show the judge or jury that their version of the truth is indeed what happened. Enough evidence needs to be presented to show that the plaintiff’s story is, at a minimum, 50 percent true. It is possible for the burden of proof to shift to the defendant in the event that the defense claims a factual issue as a response to the plaintiff’s claims. In criminal cases, there is also the standard of proof, which refers to the extent by which a party has to prove a claim. Generally, when the stakes are higher, the standard of proof becomes that much higher with it.

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS):  The Bureau of Labor Statistics is a division within the United States Department of Labor that is responsible for acquiring, processing, disseminating and analyzing statistical data related to labor economics. One primary function of the BLS is to carry out research in order to determine how much the average American family would need to earn in order to have a fair standard of living. For all of the data the BLS releases, it needs to satisfy certain elements of criteria. For example, the data needs to be relevant to current economic issues, and it must remain impartial in both presentation and subject matter. The BLS was founded 1884. All surveys fall within four main categories

Buy-Back: when an employee is offered more money than their previous salary to encourage the employee to stay with their current company after they’ve resigned.

Executive Search: C

Cafeteria Plan:  A cafeteria plan is something maintained by employers for their employees. It has to satisfy requirements set forth by section 125 within the Internal Revenue Code. Employees are allowed to receive specific benefits that are pre-taxed, and employees are permitted to choose one qualified benefit and one taxable benefit, which would include simple cash. Qualified benefits include adoption assistance, a health savings account, health benefits and other items. The plan the employer shows to workers must lay out all of the rules for eligibility and describe, in detail, the benefits being received. Cafeteria plans are paid for by salary reductions from the employer and employee, and since employee contributions are not actually being received by the worker, it is not viewed as wages for income taxes.

Calibration: typically done during an intake meeting where the Recruiter or Sourcer meets with the Hiring Manager to understand the job requirements for a new opening.

Call to Action (CTA): the part of an outreach message that invites the recipient to start a conversation or take action.

Candidate: A candidate is a person who is being considered for a particular job position.

Candidate Experience: The candidate experience refers to the range of touchpoints a candidate makes during the evaluation process. It includes filling out the application, receiving communication about the role, screening, interviewing, and extending of the offer.

Candidate Intelligence: In executive search, candidate intelligence relates to the investigative process of sourcing the names individuals who may become qualified candidates of open positions. Such research is an on-going and time consuming focus of most executive recruiters.

Candidate Persona: a clear semi-fictional representational of the ideal candidate to fill an open position. The candidate persona is typically determined by an HR team in order to tailor their sourcing and acquisition strategies towards candidates who match that persona.

Candidate Pipeline: A candidate pipeline is a database of qualified candidates for positions that your company typically fills.

Candidate portal: This is an online location provided by the company where applicants can submit
resumes, personal statements and other information, to apply for specific positions
or for future positions within a company.

Candidate Profile: a framework of qualities, characteristics, or past achievements that you want in a candidate for a certain job opening.

Candidate Quality: Candidate quality refers to the level of competence, experience, and personal traits that fit in with the position requirements and your organization’s culture.

Candidate report: A report produced by a recruiter after an interview with a candidate. Its purpose is to quantify why the candidate is or is not right for a given role.

Candidate Reports: Almost all executive search firms create comprehensive documents about the candidates they recommend for client positions. Called Candidate Reports, they are produced after interviews with candidates, research into past employers and informal background checks to give as complete a picture as possible to the client. Objective evaluations of suitability, strengths and weaknesses are provided as well as judgements about candidates' personal goals, career motivations, salary expectations and so on.

Candidate road map: A search strategy that details the who, what, where, when, and how of approaching all qualified prospects in a systematic manner.

Candidate Universe: For every open position, there are a number of people who might meet basic qualifications and can be considered worthy of further investigation. This group is called the Candidate Universe and creating this long list of potential candidates is the first step of every search. It will vary tremendously in size depending on many factors: job type, industry, geography, organization and hiring manager requirements.

Candidate-centric recruiting: The candidate-centric method of recruiting puts the candidate first, focusing on the
candidates’ wants and needs rather than the employer’s; the aim is to build a good
relationship with the candidate, rather than simply fill a job position.

Career assessment test: This is a test that individuals can take in order to find out what careers they might
enjoy and/or be successful in. The test comprises of a series of questions designed to
discern a person’s abilities, likes and dislikes and, resultantly, what career they might
be suited to.

Career Counsellor: Firms offering job search services directly to individuals. The concept is similar to outplacement except that individuals pay for the service themselves, rather than an employer. As in all professional services, fees and quality levels can vary tremendously. (Also called Job Counsellors)

Career planning: This involves an individual planning ahead for a career, including setting objectives
and goals, as well as enrolling on programs or courses, which will help to achieve
these career aspirations.

Career Site: A career website, or job website, is site where job seekers go to find open jobs. They may also find career advice, salary information, company reviews, and other useful information that supports their job search.

Career Summary: Career summaries are parts of resumes or Curriculum Vitæs which include an overview of experience, skills, and accomplishments geared to the position the applicant is applying to.

Casual Employment:  Casual employment refers to a situation in which an employee is only guaranteed work when it is needed, and there is no expectation that there will be more work in the future. During periods when the employee is not working for the employer, the two parties have no active relationship, and neither one has any obligation toward the other. That means that a worker with casual employment would not be allowed to file a personal grievance toward the employer regarding unjustified dismissal during a time when the casual employee is not working. Casual employees are only compensated for time actually worked, which means they would not receive paid time off for holidays.

Caucus:  Caucuses are groups of people within an organization who get together to discuss important matters and reach decisions. In the business world, caucuses are generally used for mediation. In this context, two parties and a mediator would come together. One party would bring up a grievance they have regarding the opposite party, and the two groups would work together to come up with a solution that everyone is happy with. For example, a group of employees at a company may form a caucus because they want better working conditions. They would bring these demands to the attention of individuals at higher-levels position, and an ultimate decision will be determined.

Centralization:  Centralization refers to the process by which the decisions within an organization are determined by a selected group of individuals. In many situations, managers at the top level of a business hold all of the decision-making power. However, it is also possible for the top managers to elect lower-level employees to speak on their behalf and have a voice in making decisions. There are certain advantages of centralization in many scenarios. For instance, managers at smaller firms may prefer this method because they personally oversee all activities within the organization, so they are in a much better position to make a decision that is in the best interest of everyone.

CF: an abbreviation for Connectifier which is a LinkedIn-owned machine learning-based searching and matching technology to help recruiters and hiring managers find talent.

Character Reference: Personal or character references are provided by someone who has in-depth knowledge of the candidate  and can testify to their character and abilities.

Character Reference;: A person who can attest to a candidate's personal qualities and abilities.

Chemistry: The term used to describe the quality of the interaction between 2 people. In recruiting, the chemistry between a prospective executives and hiring managers is an important determinant of success and is a factor in the final hiring decision. Skills and experience are, of course, critical but nothing will work if people cannot work together.

Child-Labor Law:  Child-labor laws are in place to regulate how minors can be utilized in the workplace. The Fair Labor Standards Act contains most of the language concerning this practice, but for the most part, children under the age of 14 are not allowed to be employed. Children between the ages of 14 and 16 can work, but they may only do so in limited hours. Children between the ages of 16 and 18 may work unlimited hours so long as the employment is in a non-hazardous environment. Certain exceptions exist such as children working on a family farm. Child actors and newspaper delivery workers also retain specific exemptions.

Chronological Resume: A resume format that lists career experience by date usually with the most recent position first. Most hiring managers and recruiters prefer chronological resumes since it is easier to understand candidates' career progress, positions held and dates.

C-Level: top-level managers in organizations whose titles include the word “chief”. Examples include CEO (Chief Executive Officer), CFO (Chief Financial Officer), and COO (Chief Operating Officer).

C-Level Positions: C-level jobs are executive or highly skilled positions including, but not limited to CEO, CIO, and CTO. C-level jobs are top-level jobs.

C-Level/Executive: An employee with a C, for “Chief” in their title, is a member of the top level of the executive team. They report to the Board of Directors, or the CEO (Chief Executive Officer). Individuals with VP (Vice President), SVP (Senior Vice President), or EVP (Executive Vice President) in their titles generally report to one of the C-level executives.

Client: An organization that has engaged an executive search firm to assist in hiring employees for open positions.

Client Anonymity: Clients of executive search usually expect their identity to be confidential in the early stages of the search. They generally do not want the status of their senior positions known for fear of raising concerns among customers, employees and suppliers. As well, many search engagements are to replace executives currently working and confidentiality in these cases is an even greater concern.

Client Kick-Off: the initial meeting with a client where the scope of the partnership is clarified.

Close: the final step of the recruiting process when the candidate signs the job offer and becomes an employee.

Close the Loop: Closing the loop refers to ending a discussion. In recruiting, it often means informing candidates of the outcome of a hiring process when they did not get hired for the position.

Co-employment:  Co-employment is defined as the affiliation between an employer and either a Professional Employer Organization or a firm that specializes in employee leasing, both of which share responsibility and liability of the workforce. One of the reasons a company might consider co-employment is to ensure it has workers with nuanced skills, to make it easier to hire industry experts and to replenish a dwindling workforces. Disadvantages of the practice include the potential for an increase in unemployment due to a lowered need for labor, confusion between two companies working with the same employee and employees being unsure of whom they should speak to when a problem arises.

Cognitive ability testing: Cognitive ability testing is a type of testing that focuses on the intellectual aspects of
the individual which may help or hinder them in a particular position, including aptitude
testing, performance testing and timed assessments.

Color discrimination:  Color discrimination takes place whenever an employee experiences discrimination rooted in the shade of his or her skin color. One thing to bear in mind with this type of discrimination is that it’s not the same as racial discrimination, as people of the same race can have different skin tones. What’s more is color discrimination can also occur whenever a person is discriminated against either for associating with or being married to someone of a specific skin complexion or color. In addition to discrimination, an employee can face harassment due to her or his skin color in the form of racial slurs, being subjected to racially-offensive symbols or being subjected to derogatory remarks made about her or his skin color.

Combination Resume: Combination resumes list skills and experience first, followed by employment history. All items are listed in chronological order.

Company Culture: Think of Company Culture as the personality of the company. It tells potential hires what working with the organization will be like including business values, routines, work environment, management structure, branding, and objectives.

Comparable worth:  Comparable worth is defined as the idea that female and male employees who perform work deemed to have the same value should receive similar monetary compensation. The overall value of a job can be compared by studying jobs that contain different tasks. What this doctrine ultimately means is that a woman who performs a job that has the same worth as a man performing that job should be paid the same wage as a man. There are situations where two employees of opposite genders performing the same job might not receive the same pay, such as when one of them is in a more senior position.

Compensation: Executive earnings can include a great assortment of cash and non-cash, guaranteed and variable components. Base salary may comprise only 50-60% of total compensation. Other payments may include the following: annual bonus, long-term incentive plan, profit sharing, restricted share plan (or stock options or phantom share), signing bonus, executive health insurance, pension plan, life and disability insurance. In Asia, senior executives and especially expatriates can also be provided with an automobile (plus fuel and driver), private school fees for children, air-flight tickets to home country for entire family, club memberships, housing allowance, housing loans and hard-ship bonus. (Same as Total Compensation)

Compensation & Benefits Intelligence: Compensation & Benefits Intelligence research is carried out in order to learn how your organization compares to similar organizations when it comes to paying structure and benefits.

Compensatory time-off plan:  A compensatory time-off plan is designed to provide employees with paid time off they can use instead of having their employers pay them for pay periods when they work for more than 40 hours. Such plans are widely used in the public sector, but the Fair Labor Standards Acts has tighter restrictions on them whenever they’re used for the private sector workforce. In situations where the employee is nonexempt from FLSA standards, he or she has to take paid time off by a specific pay period, such as the 26th, after the pay period during which the paid time off was earned.

Competencies:  Competencies are the knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors necessary for job success that are observable or measurable. Selecting the correct competencies supports workforce planning, organization, and development as well as determining job classes that best align with business objectives, missions, and goals. It also facilitates recruiting and selecting the top talent, managing team members effectively, and developing staff to fill future vacancies. In regards to compensation, competencies represent functions in terms of the level and type of work produced. Competencies are valuable for developing job descriptions, recruiting, assessment, and selection, employee performance management, training and development, and career and workforce planning.

Competency-based pay:  Whenever an employee is compensated in accordance with her or his type and level of obtained skills that are applied in the workplace, it’s known as competency-based pay. This salary structure differs from paying employees based on their tenure or seniority levels, and is common in fields that require professionals who have specialized knowledge. Competency-based pay has the advantage of being simple to structure and utilizes readily accessible salary tables. One unique disadvantage of the salary structure is it can be difficult to alter during times of economic hardship. Competency-based pay might also be known as skills-based and knowledge-based pay.

Completion Rate: A term that measures the percentage of executive search engagements that bring about a successful new employment relationship.

Compliance:  Compliance is a process of complying with established rules, guidelines, acts, and laws, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, Occupation Safety and Health Act, Fair Labor Standards Act, anti-discrimination laws, and sexual harassment. Compliance can also include efforts requisite for ensuring that organizations adhere to government legislation and industry regulations. It is a widespread industry concern, in part due to the increasing number of laws requiring vigilance about maintaining a comprehensive knowledge of all regulatory compliance requirements. For instance, developing software compliant with recognized specifications would then need to be deployed by users who are compliant with a merchant licensing agreement.

Compliance Officer:  A compliance officer establishes a prescribed method for tracking Human Resources-related regulations and laws affecting daily operations. The role also monitors the business’s practices and procedures to ensure compliance with those rules and guidelines. The primary focus is ensuring compliance with federal, state, and local employment practices, statutes, orders, and guidelines influencing HR actions. The compliance officer is responsible for the design, development, support, and recording of the I-9 and eVerify processes, EEO-1, and Affirmative Action Plan. Creating and presenting training to management and employees on HR- related firm policies and practices is also a critical function of this position.

Compressed workweek:  A compressed workweek is an alternative schedule for working that reduces a standard five-day workweek to fewer number of days. Employees accomplish the full number of required weekly hours by working longer days. The most popular choices in a compressed workweek are five 9-hour days the first week, and then a week of four 9-hours days. Other options include three 12-hour days or four 10-hour days. Applying a compressed workweek is easier with non-exempt staff where maximum work hours are recognized. This is an attractive strategy for workers who want more flexible work schedules and are fine building extra hours into their workday.

Conciliation agreement:  Conciliation agreements are the result of a third party helping parties resolve a dispute. The process is similar to mediation in that a conciliator assists parties to reach an agreed resolution. However, a conciliator expresses opinions about the merits of the dispute but does not decide the conflicts for the parties. It is useful if one side has unworkable beliefs about the fight; a pro-active approach to the advantages may help resolve the disagreement. The approach is advantageous if both sides want resolution by objective opinions concerning appropriate decision-making, rather than just merely by mediating and agreement between the individuals.

Concurrent Validity:  Concurrent validity is a specific form of evidence that is used to defend whether a certain validated test still gives the most accurate outcomes. Most of the time, a new test will be compared to a tried-and-true method of collecting results. For business owners, certain procedures may be in place to figure out how productive employees actually are, but an employer wants to know if another test would be more accurate. The two tests would need to be performed at roughly the same time. The two results will need to be checked to see if there is any correlation, and ultimately, the proper measures can be taken if need be.

Condition of Employment:  A condition of employment refers to something that both the employee and employer agree to at the beginning of a worker’s employment. Examples of items that might be brought up when discussing conditions of employment include dress code, number of vacation days, hours worked each day, break policies, work-related responsibilities and number of sick days. These conditions can also encompass certain benefits such as retirement plans and health insurance coverage. A condition may also include a contract that states that an employee is given employment for a certain length of time so long as the employee does not violate the terms of the contract. Workers with more valuable workplace skills are more likely to be able to negotiate better employment conditions.

Confidential candidate brief (CCB): A document used by the recruiter in lieu of a résumé or CV during the qualifying stages of a candidate search. The CCB asks specific questions about a candidate’s experience relative to the position that needs to be filled.

Confidentiality: A large percentage of executive search clients require that their name be concealed in the early stages of projects. They usually do not want the status of their senior positions known for fear of raising concerns among customers, employees and suppliers. Nor do they wish to notify competitors of weaknesses or strategic changes. As well, many search engagements are to replace executives currently working and need to be handled very carefully.

Confidentiality Agreement:  A confidentiality agreement refers to a legally-binding contract two parties sign. This contract states that one party will share certain pieces of sensitive information to the other party, and the other party agrees to not share that information with any third party. These contracts can apply to a single party, in which an employee agrees not to discuss certain items that the business shares with him or her. It is also possible to have a mutual confidentiality agreement where both parties agree not to discuss private information. Some content that is generally included in these agreements include the length of time that the signing party must keep information secret following termination of employment and a definition about what company information specifically falls under confidential data.

Conflict of Interest:  A conflict of interest refers to a situation in which an individual or entity is placed in a scenario where it would be virtually impossible for them to remain impartial. A conflict of interest has the potential to undermine an individual’s self-interest or the best interest of the general public. A common form of falling into a conflict of interest in the business world is nepotism. This refers to an employer hiring a family member for a high-ranking position at a company when the relative is not the most qualified applicant for the job. Receiving gifts or engaging in self-dealing are also considered forms of conflict of interest.

Consideration:  In finances, insurance or business in general, a consideration is something that is part of a contract that is crucial for the signing party to agree to sign the contract in the first place. The consideration in question must be valuable to the party, and it must be given in exchange of a certain service. For example, a bank giving a person a loan is a consideration that is provided on the promise that the individual getting the loan will repay the loan over time with interest. If a contract does not have a consideration, then it will be determined by a court to be invalid. This is referred to as “failure of consideration.”

Consolidated Omnibus Reconciliation Act (COBRA) of 1985:  The Consolidated Omnibus Reconciliation Act (COBRA) of 1985 is a United States law that was passed by Congress and approved by President Ronald Reagan that dealt with health care for employees in the country and its applications once an employee terminates a relationship with an employer. More specifically, it states that if an employee chooses to leave the company in which he or she works, he or she may still choose to take part in the health plan offered by the former employer for a predetermined period of time that is often 18 months. There are special circumstances, such as the divorce or death of an employee, in which his or her dependents may take advantage of this offer for a longer length of time.

Constructive discharge:  Constructive discharge is a term used to describe a certain set of circumstances presented to an employee in his or her workplace. It is what occurs when an employer or representative of an employer makes decisions and performs actions that make the workplace an abusive or otherwise unbearable location. In such an environment, the employee may feel that he or she can no longer be productive in the constant presence of this individual, thereby presenting him or her with two options. The employee could choose to accept the situation and either make complaints or hope for some kind of improvement, or he or she could simply decide that the job is not worth the trouble and resign.

Consultant:  A consultant is a person who is an independent worker but who offers his or her services to companies in capacities that fit with his or her skillsets. When a client organization brings a consultant on board with a fee-for-service compensation arrangement, it is his or her job to then provide assistance and advice with whatever the company is working on. The job is not limited to simply providing expert information and training to company employees, however. It also often includes using that expertise to develop, present and make recommendations for new ideas, methods and projects. If company administrators can afford the fees, bringing in a consultant is a great way for the business to hit the ground running on some new initiatives that would otherwise be uncharted territory.

Consumer Credit Protection Act of 1968:  The Consumer Credit Protection Act of 1968 (CCPA) was a piece of American legislation passed in an effort to guarantee American citizens honest and fair credit practices in their interactions with banks. Workers are not allowed to be terminated from their jobs because of garnishments for a single incident of debt. However, two or more do give employers grounds to terminate someone’s employment. As credit reporting and banking have evolved over the years, more laws have been passed and placed under the CCPA in keeping with the intent of the original legislation to protect consumers. Among the more prominent of additions are the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Truth in Lending Act, the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act.

Consumer credit report:  A consumer credit report is defined in the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) of 1970 as any incident in which a consumer reporting agency conveys information to one of its clients that has some kind of influence on the client. Such information can affect a person’s credit standing, credit worthiness, character, credit capacity, mode of living and general reputation. Changes in any of these factors are important because credit lending and insurance organizations use them to determine whether or not a consumer is eligible for their services. This eligibility can have a bearing on certain choices one has for oneself, one’s family and one’s employment.

Contingency Recruiter: the recruiter or recruitment firm is not paid until they provide a candidate who is offered and accepts the position. Sometimes called “No Win, No Fee.” Contingency recruiters must operate especially quickly to attract top talent before in-house teams and competitors.

Contingency Recruiting: A recruiting relationship where fees are paid only when a candidate is hired through the recruiter. Providers of contingency recruiting are usually called by such names as: employment agencies, personnel recruiters, staffing providers and similar. In emerging countries of Asia, most contingency recruiters call themselves "executive search" without understanding the difference.

Contingency Recruiting (Contingency Placement): Contingency agencies are paid when the candidate presented is hired by the employer.

Contingent recruiting: With contingent recruitment more than one company competes to fill an open position for your company. The contingency organization collects a fee only if your company hires their candidate.

Contingent recruitment can be attractive to businesses due to the low initial investment. However, the placement fees are typically more expensive, and contingent recruiters are unlikely to take on hard-to-fill roles.

Since the contingent recruiter is financially motivated, the focus may lean towards candidate quantity over quality.

Contingent staff: Contingent staff are employees who work for a company temporarily; they can be
freelancers or temporary contract workers.

Contingent worker:  A contingent worker is an employee who does not have a specific contract that explicitly defines long-term employment with a company and instead is based on a short-term need. These employees work for as long as the company needs. Their jobs may be temporary while a specific task is performed, or they might be workers who reported they do not expect their jobs to last much longer. People who work on construction sites, those who set up phone and Internet networks for new businesses, or those who only work during specific seasons might be considered contingent workers. Related terms include temporary employee, seasonal employee, and contract worker.

Contract Recruiter: Contract recruiters work at the company site but are not permanent employees. They may be hired to cover another recruiter’s leave of absence, meet aggressive hiring goals, or hire for specialty positions.

Contract to Contract (C2C): a contract employee who moves from one contracted position to another one.

Contract to Permanent (C2P): a person who is hired as a contractor with the intention or promise of transitioning to a full-time employee after a specified period.

Contractor:  A contractor is a company or firm that enters into a business contract with the federal government. There are two types of contractors. A firm is considered a prime contractor if it has more than 50 employees and enters into contracts valuing a total of $50,000 or more per year. A firm is considered a subcontractor if it is hired by the prime contractor to complete part of the job and earns at least $10,000 in subcontracted work each year. Examples of government contract jobs include construction of new structures or improving structures already standing, as well as outfitting government buildings with communications systems.

Contract-to-hire: Some recruitment agencies will source and recruit for contract-to-hire roles. The contract-to-hire scenario allows both the employee and the hiring company to evaluate whether the candidate is a good match before the role becomes permanent.

A typical contract lasts about three months. The contract can expire if the match doesn’t suit the candidate and business. It’s important to note, however, that not all candidates are willing to leave a stable job for a riskier contract-to-hire scenario.

Core competencies:  Core competencies refer to the skills, abilities, and knowledge an employee must have before he or she is able to successfully perform tasks related to his or her job. Core competencies vary greatly based on industry, company, and job. For example, a lawyer at a law firm must have extensive knowledge of law and an ability to communicate well not only with clients, but with judges and other lawyers. On the other hand, a receptionist at a law firm would not need much law knowledge, but would have to know how to work an appointment scheduling system and talk pleasantly on the phone.

Core work activities:  Core work activities are the tasks employees must complete in order for a business or organization to operate successfully. This might include taking inventory, preparing orders, designing or building products, or communicating with current and potential clients. Without the proper completion of core work activities, a business cannot function on schedule. For example, if a pizzeria’s night crew forgets to clean the ovens when they leave, the restaurant’s morning crew cannot begin serving food until they do the work. Those who do their work well and complete vital tasks on a daily basis are considered core workers in a business.

Corporate citizenship (corporate social responsibility):  Corporate citizenship is the term used to describe the contribution a business or organization makes to the local community or society as a whole. These contributions include not only the company’s core business activities, but also its investments in the local community. An organization’s long-term success depends on having favorable corporate citizenship. For this to happen, the company must successfully engage with its employees, shareholders, business partners, customers, the government, and the rest of the community. These relationships are vital for a business that wants to have successful financing and social standings within the community. Corporate citizenship is often referred to as corporate social responsibility or corporate governance.

Corporate Culture: Every organization has a specific set of values and manner of doing business. Companies might be entrepreneurial or well structured, adversarial or collaborative, for instance. Candidates who do very well in one corporate culture may fail in another. It is important for hiring managers and recruiters to source people with the personalities and experience that are a fit for the organization.

Corporate Recruiter: A corporate recruiter (also known as HR Recruiters or professionals in Talent Acquisition), works exclusively for one company.

Cost Per Hire: the total cost of bringing new hires into a company. This metric includes all expenses of the recruitment process including communication/ administrative costs, travel, and equipment. It can be calculated by adding all costs of hiring then dividing that sum by the number of hires in a certain time frame.

Cost-per-hire: Evaluates the average costs incurred in recruiting and hiring new employees. Typically, the equation is total recruitment costs divided by the total number of new hires. Components of this measurement include relocation costs, job board fees, interviewing expenses, referral bonuses, recruitment staff compensation, skills assessment, and pre-employment screening.

Counter Offer: A counter offer can mean 1 of 2 things. After receiving a job offer from an employer, a candidate may respond by asking for improvements and this is called a counter offer. In high growth Asia, it more commonly means an offer given by a current employer to keep an employee who has received a job offer by another employer.

Counteroffer: Either an offer given by a candidate’s current employer to keep him or her from accepting a job elsewhere or a candidate’s request to improve on an offer being made by an employer.

Cover letter: A cover letter is a letter which summarizes the following documents, in a candidate’s
case this would be their resume. It may also contain an explanation as to why they
have decided to submit their resume and why they want to work at that particular

C-Suite: Chief [insert] Officer. applies to executives at the VP level and up.

Cultural differences:  Cultural differences are the various beliefs, behaviors, languages, practices and expressions considered unique to members of a specific ethnicity, race or national origin. Some examples of cultural differences as they pertain to the workplace include employees who are younger or older than their co-workers, employees who hold higher degrees than others in the workplace and individuals who grew up in either metropolitan areas or small towns. It is said that employees often have more similarities than they do differences, but those differences can sometimes outweigh the similarities. While these various differences can create a more vibrant office, they can also lead to more than a few problems resulting from culture clash.

Cultural fit: Cultural fit refers to a candidate or employee’s alignment with the organizational culture and processes in terms of beliefs, work expectations, and values.

Cultural integration:  Cultural integration takes place whenever employees who come from different ethnic or racial backgrounds are brought into balanced association. The importance of proper cultural integration has risen because of the increased number of businesses that have cross geographic borders. What’s more is cultural integration is also used as a way to ensure there isn’t a dominant culture in the workplace. When successful, there is a noticeable reduction in cultural gaps, and the local culture also becomes diluted, both of which can promote workplace diversity. Not only is cultural integration good for the workplace, it can also be beneficial for the company’s brand.

Culture Add: Culture add considers a candidate’s contribution to the organizational culture. This way of thinking about hiring focuses on building diversity within an organization to foster innovation.

Curriculum vitae (c.v):  A curriculum vitae is essentially a traditional resume, but longer and with more details. The resume is more commonly used in the United States while the curriculum vitae is more popular and widely used internationally. Some of the items often included in a c.v. include personal information pertinent to the job, employment history, education and professional qualifications. In certain regions of Asia, applicants are required to include a photo and their date of birth with their c.v. Much like a resume, an applicant might change the information contained in his or her c.v. to make it relevant to the job for which he or she is applying.

Curriculum vitae (CV): A document prepared by a job seeker that describes in detail his or her career history, education, and qualifications. It may also list publications, awards, affiliations, or presentations. CVs have legal standing, meaning there can be consequences if they include false information.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM): a technology for managing company relationships and interactions with customers and potential customers.

CV: A Curriculum Vitae (Latin for "path of life") is an official document prepared by job-seekers to describe their career history, education and specific qualifications. It carries legal standing and consequences for dishonest representation can be severe for executive managers. CV's are often referred to as resumes but CV's are usually longer, giving detailed history of experience, presentations, publications, awards, affiliations, etc. In Europe, Asia and the Middle-East, CV's tend to be 4 or more pages in length. Resumes of 2 to 4 pages are more common in Anglo Saxon countries and particularly the United States. Academic and other public sector employees tend to write CV's that are lengthy because of their nature of their work.

Executive Search: D

Damages:  Damages are the monetary amounts the court requires one party to pay another for breaching an agreement or contract. The specific amount of damages one can receive depends on the claim, and the main purpose for awarding those damages is to ensure the individual is put in the same economic condition he or she was in before the legal matter in question. Examples of damages a person can receive include front pay, back pay, lost benefits, reinstatement, punitive and compensatory. Damages are also meant to include the financial as well as the emotional losses the individual suffered before bringing the case before the court.

Debriefing: A debrief is a meeting at the end of a completed project. In recruiting, it often refers to a meeting of interviewers and the hiring manager at the end of an interview process to discuss the merits of each candidate.

Defamation:  Defamation is defined as injury inflicted on a person’s reputation or standing in the local community as the result of another person’s harmful or untrue statements, which can be declared verbally or in writing in a newspaper, magazine or the political community. Some of the harm that can result from defamation includes being shamed, ridiculed, belittled, scorned, hated or targeted for contempt. A person who feels she or he has been defamed can sue for damages. Depending on the state, the individual bringing the suit to court might first have to demand a printed retraction of the alleged defamatory statement.

Deferred Compensation: a portion of compensation that is paid to an employee at a later date. An example of deferred compensation is a pension, which is paid when an employee retires, even though it is continuously earned.

Defined benefit plan: A defined benefit plan is a kind of pension plan, where the pension owed is a
specified amount, based on a fixed formula which takes into account an employee’s
length of service, age and earning history etc.

Demotion:  A demotion refers to a permanent reassignment to a lower position than the employee had worked previously. The position will generally have a lower level of responsibility or required skill, and a lower pay grade than the previous position.

Department of Labor (DOL):  Under the federal government, the Department of Labor (DOL) is responsible for enforcing and administering various federal labor laws. These include overtime pay, wages and hours, child labor, FMLA and workplace health and safety.

Depending on Experience (DOE): when the compensation for an open position is not fixed but depends on the candidate’s previous experience in the field.

Diamond Candidate: an IQTP-specific method of sourcing and recruiting that includes the 4 C’s, collaboration, calibration, candidate, and culture.

Direct (permanent) hire: Direct hires are for permanent, full-time positions. Permanent roles tend to offer company benefits.

Hiring a recruitment firm for a direct hire is ideal for unexpected vacancies. A recruitment firm can also help if your internal team lacks the time or resources to fill the role. It may also be a good solution for hard-to-fill roles.

The recruiting firm will be involved during the initial sourcing, recruiting, and hiring process. Once an offer is accepted, the employee is added to the client’s payroll.

Direct compensation:  Direct compensation refers to the compensation that an employee receives directly from his or her place of work. This includes the base salary and any incentive pay.

Direct hire: This is where a specific candidate is offered a position directly by the company.

Direct Placement: The bringing together of a job seeker and a prospective employer for the purpose of a
permanent employment relationship.

Direct Reports: people for whom another is directly responsible; subordinates.

Direct Sourcing: Phrase describing a time-consuming method of acquiring candidates through proactive contact after research of target companies' organizational structure. It is understood that highly desirable management candidates rarely submit their confidential resumes to job postings, advertisements, job fairs and resume databases of general employment agencies. The only way to reach such people is for knowledgeable search consultants to contact them directly in a confidential manner.

Disability:  The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) defines a disability as a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of an individual.â€� Examples of these activities include talking, sitting, standing and walking.

Disability management:  Disability management refers to the coordination between parties to reduce the impact of illnesses and injuries in the workplace and to assist injured employees in performing their jobs in the best way possible.

Disabled individual:  A disabled individual is defined, according to ADA guidelines, as someone who has a mental or physical impairment that limits the capacity to work or affects another major life activity; has a record of this type of impairment; or is observed to have such impairment. Social Security defines a disabled individual as one who cannot carry out the same work that he or she was able to do previously and this individual is limited by a medical condition and cannot adjust to any other type of work.

Disabled Veteran:  A disabled veteran is an individual whose disability was sustained or aggravated while in the line of duty and was released or discharged due to this disability.

Disciplinary action:  Disciplinary action refers to the scolding of an employee who fails to follow the organization’s rules, policies, or performance standards.

Disciplinary layoff:  Disciplinary layoff refers to a suspension without pay for a pre-determined amount of time for employees who violate a company work policy or rule.

Disclosure:  Disclosure is the term used to describe the process of a business communicating with its employees or the general public in regards to potential hazards. The term is usually used in regards to a company’s business practices and any harm it could bring not only to plant and animal life in the area, but also to employees or citizens in the community. Each state and some local communities have their own specific laws governing what a company must disclose and what it can keep to itself. Even without laws in place, it is considered good business practices to be honest with employees about potential hazards and to pay them accordingly.

Discretionary bonus:  A discretionary bonus is extra pay that a company agrees to provide to an employee for specific or unexpected situations. These cash payments are not part of the employee’s contract, and the employee should not expect to receive the bonus regularly. Discretionary bonuses are often used to reward exceptional performance, contribution, or accomplishment that goes above and beyond the employee’s usual realm of job duties. Many companies choose to give discretionary bonuses once or twice per year, but are under no obligation to do so by law. Some contracts might refer to these bonuses as discretionary compensation performance recognition awards and payments.

Discrimination:  Discrimination is the act of giving an employee or potential employee an unfair advantage or disadvantage in the workplace based on his or her gender, age, creed or religion, political affiliation, handicap, marital status, or ethnicity. In some states, it is also considered discrimination when these advantages or disadvantages are based on sexuality or arrest or conviction record. Discrimination laws cover recruiting and hiring, training, promotion, and pay of employees. When a company is found in violation of discrimination laws, it not only must rectify the situation and pay compensation to the disadvantages, but will usually also incur high court costs and fines.

Disparate impact:  Disparate impact is the result that occurs when a company creates a rule that every employee must follow, but that rule has a negative impact on minorities or women. Rules that cause a disparate impact to an entire group of employees are in direct violation of Equal Employment Opportunity law.

Disparate treatment:  Disparate treatment refers to rules and policies being applied inconsistently, in a discriminatory manner against someone of a protected class. For instance, it is considered disparate treatment for an employer to exclude a worker from an employment opportunity intentionally.

Displaced workers:  Displaced workers are those who have lost or left their jobs due to reasons beyond their control, such as a plant closing or moving, relocation, downsizing or their position or shift being abolished.

Disqualifying income:  Disqualifying income is any income that prevents a taxpayer from receiving an earned income credit when filing taxes. Rent income, interest, income not received due to self-employment, and net capital gain are all considered disqualifying income.

Diversity:  The dimensions of diversity in the workplace range from work style and personality to gender, ethnicity, age, and race. Secondary workplace diversities include education, socioeconomics, and religion as well as proximity to the central office, functional level in the organization, and management and union influences. The aggregate blend of similarities and differences may also include behaviors, experiences, backgrounds, beliefs, values, and individual and organizational characteristics. Diversity may also be present among employees’ ages, gender, religion, cultural backgrounds, physical abilities and disabilities, and sexual orientation. Ideally, diverse workplaces include employees with varying characteristics in geographic location, political and religious beliefs, ethnicity, sexual orientation, socioeconomic background, education, and gender.

DOE- Depends on Experience: This is a stipulation which companies can attach to a job application instead of a fixed
salary; the salary a candidate is paid is dependent on how much experience the
candidate has in the field.

Domestic Partner Benefits:  Domestic partner benefits are sometimes provided by employers who recognize legal partnerships that fall outside of marriage. The partnerships can be either between individuals of the same sex or of opposite sexes, and the benefits are largely in the form of health care coverage.

Downgrading:  Downgrading occurs when an employee moves to a job with a lower pay grade or level of responsibility. Either the employee or employer may initiate it. When a downgrade is the result of workforce reduction, the staff member’s salary cannot be lower than the minimum established range for the new pay grade. If a staff member requests a downgrade, or if work performance is the cause, salary is adjusted to the minimum rate of the new pay range. The employer can add, at its discretion, a percentage increase for previous work experience. Usually the job is less important than the current job held by the employee.

Downshifting:  Downshifting occurs when workers choose to stay in lower level jobs or accept lower paying positions to produce a balance between work and personal life. Incentives may include reducing stress, minimizing work life intrusions in family time, and promoting family relationships. Those employees who elect to downshift may also acquire more self-reflective approaches to life in general. This may reduce their use of resources and help mitigate the overall effect on the environment. Some employees who downshift their occupations also quit driving to work when possible, resulting in two distinct advantages

Downsizing: Occurs when a company permanently reduces its workforce.

Drug Free Workplace Act of 1988:  According to the U.S. Department of Labor, the Drug Free Workplace Act of 1988 “requires some federal contractors and all federal grantees to agree that they will provide drug-free workplaces as a precondition of receiving a contract or grant form from a federal agency.

Drug testing:  Drug testing is the process of detecting illegal drugs or alcohol within employees’ systems. Testing can be conducted in accordance with the employer’s policy and any governing state laws on a post-accident, random, or pre-employment basis, in addition to suspicion or cause. Employers who perform drug testing are dedicated to implementing an alcohol- and drug-free working environment to protect employees’ safety and health, and to develop an efficient and productive workplace. A well-drafted strategy describes the variety of testing the employer plans to conduct, the terms surrounding the screening process, and option if the results are positive. An established policy also conveys a strong zero tolerance message towards alcohol and drugs in the workplace.

Executive Search: E

EEO-1 category:  The EEO-1 category is one of nine comprehensive employment classifications listed in the EEO-1 Report. The groups include managers and officials, technicians, professionals, office and clerical, sales workers, operatives, craft workers, service workers, and laborers. Employers with 100 or more private sector workers or 50 or more non-affirmative action employees are qualifying businesses. They must submit demographic data annually by September 30th informing the government of the composition of their workforce by race, ethnicity, and gender. This is further broken into professional levels referred to as EEO-1 Groups. The EEO-1 Report contains data from private sector industries and accumulates statistics about the workforce in the United States.

E-learning: E-learning is simply learning, or furthering your education, online. This can include the
completion of online courses and gaining online qualifications.

Elevator Pitch: a brief summary of why a company and/or position is attractive. The message should be short enough to recite during an elevator ride.

Elevator Speech: An elevator speech (also called an elevator pitch) is a quick synopsis of one’s background, skills and experience.

Emotional Intelligence: Coined by Daniel Goleman, Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability of an individual to understand, assess, and manage his or her own emotions and the emotions of others.

Employee assessments: These are assessments which aim to evaluate the performance of employees or
potential employees and which also help the company to identify ways to improve
employee engagement and productivity.

Employee Assistance Program (EAP): an employer-sponsored program that offers a variety of support arrangements to help employees through personal issues such as addiction, mental health, financial stress, marital strife, bereavement, and various other conditions/issues. EAP is a benefit offered by some employers.

Employee Engagement: A measurement of an employee’s emotional attachment to his position, coworkers, and the

Employee Referral: An employee referral occurs when candidates in existing employees’ social networks apply for open roles at your company. The referring employee usually receives compensation if the candidate is hired.

Employee Referral Plan: A program where employees of an organization are compensated for providing names of suitable candidates for open positions.

Employee Referral Program: a sourcing tactic used by recruiters where current employees are rewarded for recommending candidates for open positions. Often this sourcing method can reduce time to hire and cost per hire.

Employee Retention: Practices intended to generate a work environment that makes employees want to stay with the organization, reducing turnover.

Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP):  Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP) An employee stock ownership plan, often simply called ESOP, refers to a form of retirement plan some companies offer employees wherein compensation is provided in the form of stocks. It may also be granted as money earmarked for purchasing stocks. It may be a component of an employee’s retirement plan, or it may be all of it. This essentially creates a trust fund, and employees may access their shares upon leaving the company. At this point, the employer purchases the accumulated shares of stock from the employee at their current market value. This system has many benefits, including potential tax deductions and the creation of employee ownership.

Employee stock purchase plan:  Employee stock purchase plan An employee stock purchase plan is a benefit companies may offer employees to allow the discounted purchase of its stocks. This is often accomplished through deductions from the employee’s pay, and the opportunity is typically available during an offering period. Employees who elect to participate specify the amount of stock, in a percentage or dollar figure, they would like to purchase. There may be limits to the amount an employee can purchase, including an annual limit enacted by the IRS. Though this plan is usually only available during a specified time, participants are generally allowed to change their contribution whenever they want to.p>Related terms

Employee Turnover: Turnover is the term applied to the cycle of hiring and firing that happens within an organization.
A company is said to have high employee turnover rates when their employees routinely leave or
are fired, resulting in the need to hire again.

Employee Value Proposition (EVP): the combined rewards and benefits that an employee will receive in return for satisfactory performance.

employer:  Employer

Employer Brand: Employer branding refers to all the activities that affect a company’s reputation with job seekers. The internal employer brand consists of the ways employees perceive working at the company. The external employer brand is communicated to job seekers through word of mouth, the careers website, social media, and employment sites like Glassdoor.

Employer branding: Employer branding involves cultivating a workplace identity separate from other
similar companies- an identity which employers can be sure will reach potential
candidates and which will hopefully make the company seem desirable to the

Employer information report EEO-1:  Employer information report EEO-1 An employer information report, or EEO-1 survey, is a form that companies are required to submit to the United States Equal Opportunity Commission or EEOC. It is mandated by federal employment laws and it is intended to ensure companies maintain compliance. To accomplish this, respondents must report their employment data in categories such as race or ethnicity, job category and gender. You may be required to submit an EEO-1 report if 100 or more employees work for you or if you are a prime government contractor with 50 or more workers employed. The EEOC has further details on qualifying conditions.

Employer of Record: The entity that accepts all legal and regulatory employment responsibilities of a person.

Employment agency:  Employment agency An employment agency is a company contracted to hire and staff employees for other companies. An agency may be public, operating on a federal, state or local level, or it may be a privately owned organization. The positions offered are often temporary, contact-based, part-time or temp-to-hire, and the agency will typically keep a file for each employee noting their skills and work history. This helps them match employees to new assignments. Many sectors outsource their recruiting to employment agencies, and it can help companies simplify the hiring process for entry-level and mid-level jobs. They also offer both the employers and employees flexibility that more permanent work arrangements do not.

Employment agreement: A contract between an employee and an employer that defines the rights and responsibilities of each. It typically covers issues like total compensation, job responsibilities, and authority, as well as start date, notice period, and severance. When both the employee and the employer agree to the terms, they sign the employee agreement.

Employment agreement/contract:  Employment agreement/contract An employment agreement/contract is the document which specifies the conditions and details of a person’s employment with a company. It typically must be signed by both the employee and the hiring manager, and it will contain information relating the the agreed upon salary, dates of employment and job title. It may also further detail the terms of employment, including the contractual rights held by the employer and employee respectively. The contract generally serves to establish this relationship and the obligations of each party. Benefits, responsibilities, company ownership and liability protection are all items which may be contained in the agreement.

Employment Gaps and Breaks: Periods in people's career when they were unemployed. In so-called advanced countries, there is some stigma associated with employment gaps when considering the careers of senior managers. In emerging countries where economies and family situations are more disruptive, career breaks are less of a concern.

Employment History: Employment history includes all the companies the applicant has worked for, job titles, the dates
of employment and (sometimes) salary earned at each job.

Employment practice:  Employment practice An employment practice is a term referring to the patterns that may be observed in a company’s hiring and workplace conditions. Some of these issues, such as sexual harassment, discrimination and unfair wages, can become serious liabilities if they are not treated carefully. Many local, state and federal mandates define acceptable and unacceptable employment practices. The United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, or EEOC, regulates businesses in accordance with these laws, offers compliance assistance and investigates instances of reported violations. If confirmed, consequences for violations can range from a citation to a fine and legal action taken against to perpetrator.

Employment practices liability audit:  Employment practices liability audit  An employment audit liability audit is an organized analysis of a company’s recruiting and hiring practices. It is typically self-administered, in compliance with an employment practices liability insurance policy, and conducted with the intention of uncovering any potential violations of employment laws. For many companies, regularly auditing employment practices is an effective way to mitigate problematic behaviors and biases that may otherwise pose a risk. An audit, for example, may reveal instances of discriminatory hiring, wrongful terminations, retaliation or any other actions which could provoke legal action. In discovering these liabilities, however, an employer can make efforts to rectify them before an employee takes legal action.

Employment practices liability insurance (EPLI):  Employment practices liability insurance (EPLI)  Employment practices liability insurance, sometimes simply called EPLI, is a policy issued to companies in case of legal action stemming from recruiting and hiring practices. Discrimination, sexual harassment and retaliation are a few of the most common reasons employees may take legal action against a company, but EPLI provides coverage against the cost of damages that may be won. Policies can vary widely in cost, depending on the type of business being insured, but companies may be able to mitigate costs and prevent litigation by conducting employment practices liability audits. This can help identify liabilities preemptively and eliminate them before a claim is made.

Employment torts:  Employment torts  Employment torts are violations or wrongful acts which cause a legal liability and relate to a company’s employment practices. Common examples include sexual harassment, infliction of emotional distress, wrongful termination and invasion of privacy. Any of these actions, within the workplace, may be an example of an employment tort, and it may cause legal repercussions for the company. Consequences typically include legal action of varying levels, if an employee initiates it, or if its severity calls for authorities to intervene. Businesses can often obtain coverage against the financial impact of employment tort litigation by securing an employment practices liability insurance policy.

Employment visas:  Employment visas  Employment visas are provisions indicated on a passport for foreign workers who are approved to enter the United States and work for a set period of time. There are a limited number of these visas made available, so there is much competition to qualify. They are typically issued on a temporary basis, and they are usually contingent upon sponsorship from a worker’s prospective employer. In order to sponsor an employment visa or hire a foreign worker, a company must first complete and submit an Immigrant Petition for Foreign Worker. If the application is approved by the United States Department of State, an employer can then sponsor an employment visa.

Employment-at-will:  Employment-at-will is a contractual relationship between employers and employees in which an employee may be terminated at any time without cause. Within such a contract, however, employees may also be free to terminate their own position without giving warning to their employer. Though this is still a common condition of employment, many jurisdictions have amended laws to allow exceptions to the rule in cases of discrimination. Many private companies maintain this standard, but most unions and public sector positions do not adhere to it and instead require that a just cause be established prior to terminating any employee.

Engagement fee: The fee charged by a retained recruiter at the beginning of an executive search. Also called a front-end retainer.

Entry level: Entry level jobs are typically focused on recent high school or college graduates. Screening criteria relate to basic functional skills and education more than workplace experience, though many entry-level jobs require internship experience.

Entry Level Job: An entry-level job is a position that does not require experience. Often filled by recent graduates.
Training is typically provided by the company for such a position.

Entry-level job: An entry level job usually requires no or little working experience in that field and is
usually the lowest position within a company or the first job you can hold after getting
a degree in a particular field.

Equal employment opportunity (EEO):  Equal employment opportunity (EEO)  Equal employment opportunity, or EEO, is a right every job applicant has throughout a hiring process. It refers to the protection job candidates have against discrimination on the basis of their race, religion, sex or national origin, among other qualified characteristics. Employers may not judge or decide a person’s suitability for a job on any of these bases. Federal, state and local entities, employment agencies and most private companies must abide by these standards. EEO further covers current employees against discrimination for promotions, pay, benefits or discharge. The United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission oversees compliance and responds to violations that are discovered.

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC):  Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)  The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, or EEOC, is the government agency tasked with monitoring employers’ compliance with equal opportunity mandates. It was initially organized in 1965 to enforce the standards set forth in laws such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and later, the Age Discrimination Act of 1967. These were some of the first laws to define and legislate employment practices in the United States, but prior to the EEOC, few resources existed to facilitate enforcement. It now serves to offer compliance assistance, investigate reports of violations and respond to confirmed violations with citations, fines or legal action.

Equal opportunity clause:  Equal opportunity clause  The equal opportunity clause is a statement typically contained in a contractor agreement which asserts the contractor shall not discriminate against employees on the basis of race, religion, national origin, color or sex. It is seen most often in government contracts, and it is required by law for most prime and subcontracts. There is certain language that must be used in the clause, though the specificities depend on several factors, including the monetary value of the contract, how many employees will be contracted and the size of the purchase order. Omission of this clause, when it is required, may constitute a violation of equal opportunity employment laws.

Equal opportunity survey:  The equal opportunity survey is a report required by most contractors that do not fall into the construction field. The Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs, or OFCCP, sends the equal opportunity survey out to all contractors that meet certain criteria once every two years. The contractors are required to provide information about their applicants, promotions, terminations, hires, tenure, and compensation as it relates to race and gender. The purpose of the equal opportunity survey is to ensure that every contractor is in alignment with the equal employment opportunity laws. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission enforces these laws and disciplines organizations that are in violation.

Equal Pay Act of 1963:  The Equal Pay Act of 1963 guarantees that male and female employees that are performing essentially identical jobs cannot be compensated different amount because of their genders. To be considered identical jobs, they must require the same level of skill, responsibilities, effort, working conditions, and take place in the same location. Differences in pay are acceptable if they are due to differences in seniority, production-based qualifiers, or any other aspect other than gender. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 is an amendment to the U.S. Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. Organizations that violate this act are vulnerable to penalization.

Equal Treatment:  Equal treatment refers to the legal protection all employees have to the same rights as any other employee. Most commonly, this legal doctrine is used in discharge cases to ensure that an employer is treating all employees fairly. Their practices and policies must be applied equally, consistently, and fairly among everyone regardless of their race, gender, age, or other physical or emotional characteristics. Equal treatment also applies to the compensation and benefits that employees receive, however it is most commonly referred to in regards to potential unlawful termination or application rejection. As a right all citizens are entitled to, employers that violate equal treatment can receive penalties.

Equity (Shareholder Equity): Refers to ownership in the company usually through shares. Can be a part of compensation especially for executive employees.

Executive Coach: A person who is hired to facilitate professional and personal development of management talent. Successful executive coaches tend to be mature managers with many years of career experience.

Executive compensation:  Executive-level employees receive executive compensation, which refers to packages including many benefits. Executive compensation packages may include base salary, stock options, personal benefits, perquisites, bonuses, and other benefits relating to compensation. The benefits of executive compensation is usually split into four categories

Executive development:  Executive development refers to the programs in place to help develop an executive employee’s, or potential executive employee’s, performance, skills, or competencies. Most commonly, executive development programs are specifically for leadership skills, meaning they are usually employed for executive-level members of the managerial team, or possibly simply the highest level member of management, regardless of whether they qualify as executive. Occasionally, executive development programs are employed before the employee is hired, and the state of their application depends on the result of the development plan. While the term “executiveâ€� is often used vaguely, it technically only refers to the top 5 or 10% of an organization.

Executive Order:  In the United States, executive orders are orders given by the head of the executive branch, which is the President of the United State. Executive orders hold the same authority that laws do, but they do not require the same process to be made official. Typically, executive orders are made specifically to allow members of the executive branch to do their job more effectively. While executive orders do not require a lengthy process to become official, they are still subject to judicial review and can be overturned if the courts deem them to be unsupported by the Constitution or statute.

Executive Order 11246 of 1965:  Executive Order 11246 requires qualifying contractors and subcontractors that work with the government to avoid discrimination of their employees while making decisions. To qualify contractors must have at least 50 employees and contracts of $50,000 or more. Contractors are not allowed to discriminate based on race, sex, national origin, or religion. Additionally, contractors are required by Executive Order 11246 to take affirmative action to prevent discrimination in their organization, including by developing and holding to an Affirmative Action Plan. If contractors are found to be in violation of this executive order, they may be subject to termination, cancellation, or suspension.

Executive Recruiter: Recruiting professionals who focus on filling executive positions within companies in a variety of

Executive Search: Executive search is the consultative process of recruiting individuals to fill senior management positions in organizations. It involves the engagement of an executive search firm to research and assess the suitability of available candidates to fill open position. Executive search consultants are generally paid by retainer as are other highly skilled professionals like engineers, auditors, lawyers and the like.

Executive Search Consultant: Executive search consultants typically help firms hire staff at an executive level. Much like any other recruitment consultant, their main responsibilities are defining their client’s corporate needs and recruiting the most suitable candidate. However, executive search consultants specialize at finding executive level staff.

Typically, to qualify as an executive search consultant, you should have a wealth of experience in the recruitment consulting industry.

Executive search firm:  Executive search firms are organizations that offer the service of investigating potential executive-level employees. When hired, these firms research executives currently working for related businesses that meet the client’s needs. Different organizations frequently use executive search firms when they are considering hiring a new executive and would like to research many options. In some cases, the search firm may also serve as an intermediary and inquire if the chosen executive would be interested in changing companies, as well as hold negotiations, screenings, and establishing contracts. In addition to hiring executive search firms, it is possible to work with a single stand-alone consultant.

Executive Search Firm/Executive Recruiter: An executive recruiter focuses on filling positions at the executive level (usually Vice President or C-level).

Exempt employees:  Employees that meet certain requirements are considered to be exempt employees, which means the Fair Labor Standards Act, or FLSA, does not apply to them. Under normal circumstances, all employees must be paid at least the federal minimum wage, and must be paid at least one-and-a-half times their base hourly wage for any hours worked over 40 in a single week. If an employee is exempt, it means they must be paid an established salary, instead. While it is rare for an exempt employee to earn less money than a non-exempt employee, it is possible. There are dozens of ways an employee can be considered exempt.

Exit interview:  At the time of an employee’s resignation, it is common for management to hold an exit interview. The purpose of this kind of interview is to identify the reason the employee chose to leave. If issues or points of stress can be determined or discovered, it may be possible for improvements to be made in an effort to prevent future employees from resigning for similar reasons. Often times, exit interviews encourage the departing employee to be critical of the performance and operation of the company in the pursuit of significant organization improvement. Exit interviews are possible when employees leave for other reasons, though it is less common in this situation and the goals of the interview are different.

Expat Package: Phrase used to describe the extra allowances and benefits provided to executives who are posted abroad for a defined period of time. The expat package can add a lot to people's overall compensation since many personal expenses can be covered. Some of these include: housing, automobile (with fuel and driver), private school fees, relocation, healthcare coverage, airfare to home country for family, hardship bonus, among others.

Expatriate: A person who lives and works in a country outside his or her citizenship. Executive employees are commonly posted by multinational organizations to overseas locations to manage business units.

Expedited arbitration:  Expedited arbitration is one of the methods of dispute resolution that resolves issues in agreement with a prearranged set of guidelines that are established by the American Arbitration Association.

Expenses: Executive search firms often incur out-of-pocket expenses when sourcing, interviewing and attracting senior level candidates on behalf of clients. This is because senior executives are usually difficult to reach, travel regularly and are very concerned about confidentiality. Therefore, costs for communications, private meeting rooms, travel and so on are billed to clients. Search firms in some countries charge a flat fee of 10-20% for expenses. Same as Reimbursable Expenses.

External candidate: Anyone being considered for a position who does not already work inside the organization.

External Recruiter: Recruitment consultants can either work internally or externally. An internal recruitment consultant helps their employer find staff for the company that they work at.

An external recruiter, on the other hand, is a recruitment consultant who is outsourced from an agency to another company looking to find staff. Most externals recruiters have various clients at a wide range of companies. Although, some do specialize in a particular field; for example IT or business development.

Executive Search: F

Facebook recruiting: This is a method of recruitment in which talent is recruited via Facebook, in both the
attract and engage stages of the hiring process.

Factor comparison: A method of job evaluation which ranks a job based on factors including skill, mental
and physical effort required, the responsibilities that come with the job and the
working conditions.

Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) of 1969:  The Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) of 1969 is a federal law that regulates the collection, use, and dissemination of consumer credit information.

Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) of 1938:  The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) of 1938 sets guidelines for minimum wage, employment status, overtime pay (for hours worked in excess of 40 a week), child labor, and requirements for record keeping. 2

Fair representation:  Fair representation refers to the legal duty of a trade union to represent each and every employee in a bargaining unit equally and in good faith.

Falloff: Term used by recruiters and hiring managers to describe the situation when a recently hired manager begins work only to resign a short time later. The potential of falloff risk must be assessed early by recruiters and replacement candidates prepared ahead of time.

Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) of 1993:  The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 is a federal law that allows employees to take time off work in order to deal with medical emergencies they themselves are going through or look after a family member going through a trying time. This law applies to employees who have worked at least 12 months at the same company, and they are entitled to take 12 weeks of unpaid leave. Situations where workers can use their time off under the law include a serious medical condition that makes the employee incapable of performing his or her duties, the birth of a baby and caring for a family member who has experienced an extreme illness or injury.

Family Status Change:  A family status change refers to a scenario where something has happened to an employee’s familial situation and changes may be in order to the employee’s benefits package. Events that would fall under a family status change include getting married, having a child, getting divorced, going through the death of a family member or having a spouse who has lost his or her job and no longer receives separate benefits. According to guidelines set forth by the Internal Revenue Service, the employee may request an alteration in family status by going to the human resources department of his or her business. The employee has 30 days from the moment of the event in order to ask for a change.

Fee: The price for conducting part or all of an executive search or recruiting project. Fees are usually based on results, time, materials, a percentage of the hired candidate’s total compensation, or a combination of these.

Fees: Executive search fees vary widely across regions and providers. In Europe, North America and Japan, recruiters quote standard fees between 30-33% of first year's guaranteed compensation although these are widely known to be negotiable. In other words, the search fee for a $100k per year position would be $30k (plus expenses) whether or not a candidate was placed. In emerging countries, search fees are lower (typically between 20% and 25%) with more requirements for achieving deliverables.

Fetal Protection Policy:  Fetal protection policies are in place to protect fetuses from unsafe work conditions. Many private businesses have adopted such guidelines, but in accordance with a 1991 Supreme Court ruling, the employer is not allowed to make the decision of whether a worker is fit enough to work. A pregnant woman and doctor are responsible for making the decision of whether the woman can still carry out her basic responsibilities. If a change needs to be made, then it can only be done when a pregnancy would make an employee unable to do her job. The rights of a fetus remain a highly debated topic.

Field Interview:  A field interview is a specific form of interviewing potential new hires by asking mostly open-ended questions. These interviews are meant are meant to offer a broader portrait of the interviewee and to give the prospective employee an opportunity to provide meaning and context to experiences on a resume. An employer gives a statement that the interviewee is expected to respond to rather than the employer asking a question that could be resolved with a “No” or Yes.” Questions can include inquiring about general attitudes, further details into personal experiences and beliefs. Employers who conduct these types of interviews will ideally get a more comprehensive biography of an applicant and understand what his or her general philosophy is toward the type of work that will be expected.

FIt: The quality of the interaction between a prospective candidate and the executive(s) at the organization where he or she is being recruited.

Fitness for Duty:  A fitness for duty exam refers to a test that an employer may give to workers in order to determine if they are able to physically and mentally handle the requirements of the job. This kind of test may be necessary if an employee has taken time off work to deal with an injury. If the position requires the individual to life 50 pounds, then a fitness for duty exam may be conducted to ensure that the employee is indeed ready to return to work. Employers must be careful that conducting this test does not violate anything within the Americans with Disabilities Act. You can have these tests for disabled workers, but they can only pertain to tasks that are relevant for the position.

Fixed term employment: Fixed term employment is a type of temporary employment whereby there is either a
fixed date the employment period ends, or where there is a fixed event or specific task
completed which will signify the end of the employment period.

Fixed-Term Contract: a contract signed with a recruiter that has a specific beginning and end date. The recruiter will only be paid for the work completed between those dates.

Flexible benefit plan:  A flexible benefit plan is a benefit program which allows the employee to choose how their benefits are distributed. There are two types of benefits

Flexible scheduling:  Flexible scheduling is an alternative to the traditional work schedule. Instead of the normal 9 AM to 5 PM requirement, employees working under a flexible schedule can vary their arrival and departure time. There are typically requirements that will vary from organization to organization. For instance, it is usually required that the employee still works a total of at least 40 hours in one week, or be present for a certain number of hours each day. Additionally, there may be a set of core hours that an employee must be present for, regardless of whether they are working on a flexible schedule or not.

Flexible staffing:  Flexible staffing is a practice to fill vacancies in employment. Normally, a business would hire a new permanent employee if they do not have enough on staff, but flexible staffing services as an alternative. Instead, it is possible to hire independent contractors, part-time employees, or temporary employees to fill a staff out. The advantages are that there are fewer restrictions and legal requirements when working with these kinds of employees and the commitment is much less. In some cases, it may also be cheaper to choose flexible staffing over traditional employment strategies. Other times, employers may end up paying more for the convenience of flexible staffing.

Flexible work arrangements: Flexible work arrangements allow employees to alter their usual schedule, or work
hours they choose, as long as they keep on top of their responsibilities. Examples of
this include: an employee having leeway with regards to the days they work, as well
as what time they start and end work, as long as they complete the stipulated number
of hours in the contract.

Flextime:  Flextime is an alternative to traditional work hours for employees. Instead of the typical 9 AM to 5 PM schedule that most employees follow, those working in flextime are allowed more freedom over their starting and ending times. Under flextime, there are usually a set of core hours that employees must be present for and they must usually still work a minimum number of hours per week, possibly 40. Flextime is just one method of employing flexible scheduling, some others being summer hours and compressed workweek. There is great variance in the way different organizations handle flextime and other flexible scheduling strategies.

Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) of 1966:  The Freedom of Information Act of 1966, or FOIA, is a federal law that requires any federal organization to disclose records, documents, or other materials to the general public upon request. Its purpose is to provide transparency and allow citizens to know what is going on in their government. There are nine categories which are except from the Freedom of Information Act, including law enforcement, national security, and personal privacy. The act also requires some frequently requested records to be posted publically regardless of whether they are requested or not. FOIA is recognized as a significant part of the democratic process.

Fringe benefit:  Fringe benefits are benefits of employment conferred upon employees outside of their regular salary or hourly wage.

Front pay:  Front pay is one form of compensation that courts award to plaintiffs in employment discrimination lawsuits.

Front-End Retainer: Fee invoiced at the beginning of executive search engagements.

FTE: an abbreviation for full-time employee.

Full life cycle recruiting: This is, simply, a term used to describe the whole of the recruitment process. This
includes: the preparation stages, attracting applicants, screening applicants, choosing
which applicant will acquire the position and hiring them.

Full Lifecycle: Recruiting that begins with sourcing passive candidates and ends with an offer. The entire recruitment process.

Full text search: This is a search which, when entered into a database, search engine or document,
considers all the words of the search.

Full time equivalent: This is a quantifiable unit which represents the workload of an employee so it can be
easily compared to other employees.

Full-time equivalent (FTE):  A full-time equivalent is used to calculate how many full-time employees could have been employed during a given time period, based on the total number of hours actually reported, including those by part-time employees.

Fully insured plan:  A fully-insured plan is one way for employers to offer their employees a sponsored healthcare plan.

Function: Type or level of job. The combined list of responsibilities and competencies that you expect from a potential employee, closely aligned with job title.

Functional job analysis: Functional job analysis is a type of analysis which helps to gather information about
the job and the results of which can be used to produce a job description. Information
for this analysis is gathered on job-related factors including, math, data, worker
instructions, reasoning, and language.

Functional Resume: A resume format listing skills and functions in a non-chronological manner. It downplays or even omits dates, employer names and job titles except at the bottom of the document in brief format. The functional resume has gotten a bad reputation among hiring managers and recruiters since it is difficult to understand people's career progression and used most often by candidates when trying to hide employment gaps and other career blemishes.

Executive Search: N

National Origin Discrimination:  National origin discrimination occurs when an individual is harassed or treated differently due to his or her ancestry, linguistic characteristics, culture or country of birth. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 protects individuals from being discriminated against due to national origin, and the Immigration and Nationality Act offers additional protections concerning someone’s immigration status. Any employer with at least four employees needs to abide by the laws set forth in the INA. Questions cannot be asked during the interview process regarding someone’s national origin, and a job application cannot force someone to identify his or her race.

Negotiation: This is a form of bargaining in which a compromise is ultimately struck between two
parties; with regards to recruitment, it is often the salary/benefits that are negotiated
between the employee and employer.

NERD: a member of our IQTP sourcing team at our Nashville headquarters. Our NERDs are experts in research and candidate outreach (Nashville Executive Research Division).

Non-Compete: A non-compete (on non-competition) agreement is a legal provision in which an employer requests that an employee not work for a competing company for a specified period of time upon leaving the company. Non-compete agreements are not enforceable in some states.

Non-compete agreement: This is a contract in which an employee agrees not to go into competition with the
company based on the information and data they acquire during their employment at
the company.

Non-Compete Clause: Legal commitment by an employee not to work in the same industry as the employer after departing. The non-compete clause is meant to protect the employer from losses due to improper use of confidential information such as trade secrets, client lists and new product ideas. In some countries, non-complete clause are mainly unenforceable except in severe instances. In countries like the United Kingdom, employees must remain on the payroll during the period of the non-complete clause. (See also Garden Leave)

Non-disclosure agreement: This is a contract which prevents the bound individuals from sharing information about
the business of the other person.

Non-exempt employee: This is a category of employee that is entitled to minimum wage and overtime pay, as
is stipulated in the Fair Labor Standards Act.

Non-Solicitation Clause: Usually part of management employment agreements, preventing a departed employee from contacting the employer's customers or employees about any matter that may impact the employer's business in a harmful manner for a period of time.

Nontraditional employment:  Nontraditional employment is a socioeconomic term used to define a specific profession or industry in which less than 25 percent of those employed within it are women. This situation can arise for a number of reasons. The position or industry in question simply might not hold as much personal interest for as many women as it does for men. However, many people argue that there are also regrettable situations in which those responsible for choosing new employees have either a bias against women or have an unwritten directive to give preference to male applicants. This ambiguity has prompted much legislation and investigation in the modern economy.

Executive Search: M

Mail Merge: most often used to print or email form letters to multiple recipients. Using Mail Merge, you can easily customize form letters for individual recipients.

Managed Service Provider (MSP): An MSP is an outsourced company that manages their clients’ temporary staffing programs.

MSPs provide a small team of recruiters or coordinators who manage all the requirements to ensure a smooth operation. This team will use a vendor management system (VMS), which is a technical platform, to run the program.

Large organizations that hirethousands of contractors and hundreds of staffing agencies typically MSPs.

Manager: Managers oversee a set of activities and are accountable for their successful execution. A manager usually supervises other employees.

Mandatory Retirement Age Law of 1978:  The Mandatory Retirement Age Law of 1978 is a statute that was enacted by congress to protect aging workers against discrimination. Under this law, most firms are prohibited from requiring employees to retire before they reach 70 years of age. Certain industries are exempted for public safety reasons. Under FAA regulations, airline pilots must retire by age 65. Prematurely forcing a worker to retire has many negative outcomes. Removing a source of income can damage the financial retirement plans of an employee, and it is often too difficult for older workers to find work again after a layoff. The law also encourages firms to invest in an employee’s entire career instead of focusing on only the initial period of the work relationship.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS):  A Material Safety Data Sheet is an informative document that describes a hazardous chemical substance that is found in the workplace. These sheets must be kept on the company’s site and made available to all employees. OSHA regulates both the content of the information and the presentation. Each sheet describes the potential hazards to the employee’s health, treatment procedures, and symptoms of exposure. Sheets must be clearly identified and stored in a highly visible place. One sheet must be kept for each hazardous substance found on the premises. Employers should also provide safety training to prepare employees for emergencies and demonstrate the use and availability of these sheets.

Maternity leave cover: A contract employee covers the responsibilities of an employee on leave due to the birth of a child.

Mean Wage:  The mean wage is the average wage that employees receive for the same work performed during a given period of time. It is determined by adding together all of the wages of employees in a specific job or industry and dividing that total by the number of employees. This figure is often used as a benchmark for determining salaries to offer new hires or for estimating costs for new business processes. While this can seem like a straightforward measurement, there are complications that arise as a result of subtle differences in the job classifications and conditions. Different levels of experience and education of the workers in the sample can also skew the results.

Median:  The median is a statistical measure of the exact middle of a set of ranked data. When a study is performed to collect information, the sets of information are sorted into categories and lists. The list of data is arranged in ascending order. The middle value is considered to be important for analytical purposes. When compared to the average of the data, a large discrepancy indicates a wide range of information or a potential problem with outliers that are skewing the results. The median is often considered to be a more useful figure than the average value, and it can be used to evaluate wages, productivity, and costs.

Median wage:  Median wage is the limit between the amount earned by 50 percent of workers who are the lowest paid and 50 percent of workers who are the highest paid in a particular job or industry occupation. Employees who earn median wage would have half of the workers earn more and half less than they do. Median wage differs from mean wages because it does not represent the average of all workers’ earnings but rather is the middle point between the highest and lowest salaries, which can be helpful for understanding the overall salary range of positions in a field of employment.

Mediation:  Mediation is a form of conflict resolution that involves two parties in dispute who work with an objective third person to negotiate an agreement. Usually, mediation is a step in employment or other disagreements as an effort to come to terms without filing a lawsuit or going before a judge. The outcome is agreed to by both people, but is not enforced by the mediator. The purpose is to create a settlement that resolves the issue or concern while avoiding further legal action. Some contracts mandate mediation as a step that must be attempted before pursuing litigation. Related terms include “arbitration” and “conciliation.”

Medicare:  Medicare is a federal program managed by the Social Security Administration that provides health insurance coverage. Entitled populations include elderly people 65 and older, individuals with permanent kidney failure requiring transplant or dialysis, or disabled younger people who have met eligibility criteria. Medicare is divided into two main parts, Part A, which provides hospital coverage, hospice care, or skilled nursing care, and Part B, used for other expenses related to medical care and is subject to a monthly premium. Part C, offered through subcontracted private companies that administer both Part A and B, is also known as a Medicare Advantage Plan. Medicare has also expanded to include prescription drug coverage through Part D, which like Part C, is also implemented by private companies.

Mental Health Parity Act (MHPA) of 1996:  The Mental Health Parity Act (MHPA) of 1996 is a federal law aimed at protecting individuals who receive mental health treatment. It bans health insurance companies and other entities that offer coverage for mental health treatment from setting restrictions on benefits. The act is designed to discourage lifetime maximum financial amounts or providing less coverage for mental health care than would be allowed for physical health care or surgical treatment. There are exemptions for small businesses with 50 or less employees as well as for group health plans that could experience financial strain due to the increased expenses.

Merger:  A merger is the combining or two or more businesses or organizations into one for some mutual advantage. It can allow for one owner and management administration for the combined businesses to function as one entity, or it may provide for each company to retain its own management leadership. Usually, a merger occurs through a joint agreement and is intended to enhance the financial value or industry standing of the combining companies. There are several types of mergers, such as vertical, horizontal, or conglomerate, depending on the companies’ relationships to each other prior to joining together. Related terms include “acquisition” and “conglomerate.”

Military Recruiter: This type of recruiter specializes in finding candidates with military experience.

Minimum qualifications:  Minimum qualifications is a term used in job descriptions to refer to the skills and experience needed for a particular position.

Minimum wage:  Minimum wage refers the smallest wage an employee can make per hour for all hours he or she works on the job.

Minorities:  Minorities is a broad term that refers to men and women who are part of minority groups. For employment and workforce purposes, those who fall under this category are racial minorities

Minority business enterprise:  A minority business enterprise is a small business enterprise that one or more minorities own at least 51 percent. For publicly owned businesses, one or more minorities must own at least 51 percent of the stock classes and types and must control management and the daily business operations.

Mission statement:  A mission statement, also referred to as a corporate mission, company mission or corporate purpose, is a statement that illustrates a company’s identity and purpose.

Mitigation:  Mitigation is the process of reducing exposure to risk. A company may want to take certain actions to minimize potentially harmful situations even if the situation is of no fault of their own. For example, if a company hires a new employee with a contract stating that he or she will work for the business for at least one year and the employee quits after two months, then the company would need to mitigate damages by filling the vacancy as soon as possible. The company would still be in a position to sue the employee for breach of contract, but actions still need to be taken to mitigate situations.

Mobile recruiting: This is a method of recruiting which focuses on the use of handheld devices, or a
mobile, to engage with possible candidates.

Mobile Strategy: Mobile strategy refers to the collection of activities that target candidates on mobile devices. It ensures that candidates are able to easily find jobs, learn about your company, apply, and communicate through the hiring process from a smartphone. It may also include a mobile-optimized component for recruiters, hiring managers, and interviewers.

Mock interview: This is a method of preparation which a candidate can use to prepare for an actual job
interview, by having someone pretend to interview them so that they can practice
answering questions.

Money Purchase Plan:  A money purchase plan is a type of retirement plan in which the employer puts away a set amount of money into each employee’s retirement fund. Contributions are made annually, and unlike other retirement plans where the amount put in varies, a money purchase plan requires the amount to be the same from one year to the next regardless of total profits. Contributions made by employers are tax-deferred until the funds are withdrawn. Under this plan, employees cannot contribute money to their own personal retirement accounts. This type of retirement plan is good for businesses looking to attract the best employees from other organizations.

Moonlighting:  Moonlighting refers to the practice of working a second job outside normal business hours. Therefore, an employee may work a normal 9-to-5 job as a primary source of income but work nights at a different job in order to earn extra money. Employees who work for private businesses may be subject to any policies the company has in place regarding moonlighting. Certain organizations may not want employees to work additional jobs while others will not care. Employees for public organizations may need to check with any agency regulations or federal laws concerning having two jobs. One example would be the fact that employees of federal government agencies are prohibited from receiving two sources of income that both come from the federal government.

Multi-Employer Plan:  A multi-employer plan refers to a benefit plan in which more than one employer contributes to the benefit plan as part of a collective bargaining agreement. These plans generally involve multiple local unions that are part of the same national union board or work among different employers. Numerous industries utilize these types of plans, including mining, health care, transportation, arts and construction. There are various benefits to utilizing a multi-employer plan such as the fact that employees get to retain their benefits even if they go from one employer to the next, and these benefits are provided to beneficiaries and workers tax-free.

Executive Search: O

O*Net (Occupational Information Network):  The O*Net (Occupational Information Network) is a government-run database that is the primary source for information on any particular job in the United States. The Employment and Training Administration of the United States Department of Labor is the body that both runs and sponsors this database. Before 1999, the source for American occupational information was the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT). However, with the quick proliferation of the internet throughout the country, and the speed and accessibility that it presented, the DOT was rendered obsolete, thus ushering in the age of the O*Net which is still in use to this day.

Observation interview: Observational interviews are conducted on existing employees while they perform
their day-to-day tasks and duties, to assess the effectiveness and productivity of the

Occupational disease:  An occupational disease is defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) of 1970 as being any condition or disorder that is abnormal for a worker that was caused by his or her exposure to chemicals, physical activities or other factors directly associated with the workplace. OSHA also goes on to make the distinction that this term is to be used in cases that are not related to an occupational injury, which is the result of a single incident of negligence and is therefore dealt with by other legal means. With both diseases and injuries, however, employers are often held financially responsible for the employee’s recovery.

Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) of 1970:  The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) of 1970 is a piece of legislation that established a set of standards which employers are required to meet so that their employees are provided with healthy and safe working conditions. If the job offered by an employer involves employee interaction with any hazards that might cause some kind of affliction or injury, the employer is legally obligated to provide his or her workers with adequate training and equipment to be as safe as possible. Furthermore, employers must inform their workers of the hazardous nature of any materials or activities and their associated risks.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration:  The establishment of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in the United States’ Department of Labor goes hand-in-hand with the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) of 1970 in its purpose of managing and ensuring the health and safety of workers within the country. In addition to the provisions put forth in the OSHA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration creates and enforces new employment standards, provides outreach and training, establishes partnerships and encourages further improvement in the area of workplace health and safety. As some occupations become obsolete and new technologies create new jobs, this administration is consistently kept busy.

Offer: when a candidate is formally extended a job opportunity.

Office of Federal Contract Compliance (OFCCP):  The Office of Federal Contract Compliance (OFCCP) is a division of the Department of Labor’s Employment Standards Administration and is tasked with enforcing three directives. These are

Off-Limits: Refers to the agreement by recruiters not to target executives in client organizations for open positions at other companies. Mainly an issue with large search firms since they can be dealing with many companies in an industry and, therefore, can be severely constrained for candidates to pursue. Off-limits is a big reason boutique search firms dominate the smaller economies of most emerging countries.

Off-limits agreement: An agreement that prevents a recruiter from targeting executives at one client company for employment at another company — in other words, putting them off-limits. The standard off-limits policy, outlined by the Association of Executive Search Consultants, stipulates that a search firm will not approach a company that it has worked for during the previous two years. Also known as a hands-off agreement.

Older Workers Benefit Protection Act (OWBPA) of 1990:  The Older Workers Benefit Protection Act (OWBPA) of 1990 is a piece of legislation that was passed by the United States’ Congress under President Bush Sr. It ensures that employers do not practice age discrimination by requiring them to either spend the same amount of money on benefits for older and younger employees or by providing the same benefits to both groups. The OWBPA was passed not as its own separate law, but rather as an amendment to the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) of 1967, which states that no employer may refuse to hire someone solely on the basis that he or she is 40 years of age or older.

Ombudsperson:  An ombudsperson is a person who is appointed to assist in the resolution of conflicts between groups or other individuals via advisement, mediation and the facilitation of rational talks between the two disputing parties. In the frequent case in which the ombudsperson is appointed by some government body, he or she is also referred to as a public advocate. As such a namesake would suggest, this person is given a great deal of independence to look into some alleged instance of a violation of rights or maladministration. Essentially, an ombudsperson is brought in to act as a third party with a fresh pair of unaffiliated eyes.

On Target Earnings (OTE): the estimated amount of earning an employee receives when they meet their targets.

Onboarding: The process of assimilating new managers into organizations. Senior managers must quickly decipher the corporate culture and actual reporting structure of their new employer, and then develop relationships with key people who will help their situation. While doing this, their every move is being scrutinized warily by those with vested interests. Organizations should have formal onboarding processes in place to help during this initial hazardous period.

On-target earnings (OTE): On-target earnings refer to an employee’s wages, plus whatever bonus they are
assigned when they reach the stipulated target, such as a commission.

On-the-spot interview: This is a type of interview which occurs when an applicant applies for a job in person
and the employer opts to interview them straight away.

Open enrollment period:  An open enrollment period is a space of time, typically on a yearly basis, in which workers are permitted to make changes to their current benefit plans or to choose something new. The specific time in which the open enrollment period takes place varies from business to business, as it is determined by the benefit companies with which each employer has chosen to partner. However, if either an individual’s employer does not offer certain health benefits or the person works independently, he or she is also afforded an open enrollment period in which to purchase plans online through insurance exchanges created by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

Open job interview: This is a type of interview which is open to all interested applicants; all applicants can
submit their applications and be interviewed.

Oral reprimand:  In the context of a business, an oral reprimand is a verbal warning that a supervisor or manager gives to an employee as a means of rectifying some incident of inappropriate conduct or behavior. An oral reprimand is performed for a number of reasons. It provides the supervisor with a means of accurately but professionally articulating his or her concerns in a manner that commands a high level of respect from both the person receiving the warning and other employees. Additionally, it is a way for the manager or supervisor to attempt to correct the problem without having to fill out any formal paperwork so that the incident does not go on the record of the employee in question.

Outbound hiring: Outbound hiring is a process which involves the hiring manager actively searching for
a candidate (usually from the company’s talent pool) and contacting them, rather than
letting candidates come to them.

Outplacement: A service to help terminated employees find new employment. When companies downsize, people who see their careers vanish are often put into emotionally difficult and financially inconvenient circumstances. Outplacement helps former employees and maintains morale with current staff since the employer is seen to be acting in a caring manner.

Outplacement Agency: An outplacement firm assists workers who have been laid off or downsized from a company. Workers receive job search assistance and training, and the outplacement firm is paid by the company from which the worker was let go.

Outsourcing: Outsourcing is the method by which companies hire an individual outside of the
company to perform a task or complete a job. Companies outsource for tasks which
are finite and not core to the company’s continuous function.

Overtime:  According to the Fair Labor Standards Act, overtime is any amount of work performed by an employee that exceeds 40 hours in one week. For those who work in law enforcement, the FLSA defines overtime as an excess of 171 hours in a four week period. Fire safety officials, however, must work more than 212 hours within 28 days in order to qualify for overtime payments. Some organizations also offer individual collective bargaining agreements or compensation plans which detail additional overtime provisions for employees.

Executive Search: P

Paid leave bank:  A paid leave bank is an employee benefit program that consolidates different types of leave into a single plan. Employers who choose to implement a paid leave bank in the workplace do not distinguish between vacation time, sick leaves or personal leaves. Instead, all time off benefits are combined into one multi-purpose bank of days. This allows employees to use a set number of paid days for both scheduled and unscheduled absences, but most programs do not provide coverage for holidays, jury duty or bereavement.

Paid time off (PTO):  Paid time off (PTO) is a benefit program offered by many companies which allows employees to take off for a specific number of days and still receive compensation. This generally includes absences related to vacation, illness or personal circumstances. Under federal law, there is no minimum requirement for PTO benefits in the United States. As a result, each employer has the power to implement their own plan and accrual policies. Additional provisions, such as rollover terms or PTO banks, vary significantly as well, but many organizations calculate paid time off based on length of employment or the average number of hours worked in one pay period.

Panel Interview: A panel interviewer entails multiple people interviewing a candidate at the same time. It may include a presentation by the candidate.

Panel Job Interview: A personal interview where the candidate is assessed by a group of interviewers simultaneously.

Parental leave:  Parental leave is an employee benefit that provides approved time off for the birth, adoption or care of a child or dependent. In the United States, unpaid parental leave is mandated by law for both mothers and fathers, which means the company must hold the employee’s position during an approved absence. Under the Family and Medical Leave Act, the minimum requirement for job protection benefits is 12 weeks. During this time period, the employer must also continue to provide group health insurance coverage for qualified individuals. In addition, some companies offer paid time off that is funded through private sources or subsidized by other employees.

Part-time employee:  A part-time employee is an individual who works less than a specified number of hours during a standard work week. Although most companies define this as anything under 40 hours, the Fair Labor Standards Act does not currently differentiate between part-time and full-time employment. As a result, each individual employer has the authority to establish a higher or lower. However, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics defines part-time employment as one to 34 hours per week. In many cases, a minimum of 20 hours per week is required to be considered a part-time employee and workers are expected to remain on call for additional shifts or seasonal overtime.

Passive candidate: A passive candidate is a candidate who is not actively looking for a new job, but is still
considered to fill a position. A passive candidate is usually already employed by the
company and is being considered for a new position.

Passive Candidates: People who are happily and successfully employed and not seeking new employment. Passive candidates are typically mature people in the middle or late parts of their careers. Virtually all successful senior managers are Passive Candidates. Their loyalty to employers and success on the job makes them the most valuable as targets of executive search.

Passive job search: Passive job searching is done by an individual who is not actively looking for jobs and
are usually already employed, but still browse job search engines for potential new
employment opportunities.

Paternity leave:  Much like maternity leave, paternity leave is an approved absence from work due to the birth or adoption of a child. According to the Family and Medical Leave Act, any individual who has worked for a company with more than 50 employees for one year and accumulated at least 1,250 hours on the job is eligible to receive 12 weeks of unpaid time off. Some companies provide paid time off for both mothers and fathers, a benefit which must be equally available to men and women in the workplace to avoid sexual discrimination.

Pay adjustment:  In general, a pay adjustment is any change that affects the pay rate of an employee, whether it is an increase or a decrease, that does not involve the duties associated with a given position. In many cases, a pay adjustment applies to a particular group of employees and is granted in the beginning of each fiscal year, but spot adjustments are also common for employees who go above and beyond company expectations. In addition, employers must consider the amount paid by competitors for similar work in a given industry.

Pay grades:  Pay grades are defined as a method of categorizing different types of jobs into groups that have the same relative pay rate and internal worth. They are used to determine a standard framework of monetary compensation for both private and public sector organizations. Pay grades typically encompass two separate levels of evaluation. The vertical range is associated with the responsibilities needed for a specific position, while the horizontal range corresponds to tenure and performance in the workplace. In this way, employee progress can be assessed on a regular basis rather than relying on an open form of negotiation for fair salary ranges.

Pay range:  A pay range is defined as a set boundary for compensation which identifies the minimum and maximum amount of a specific pay grade. Pay range classifications are typically assigned by the Director of the Office of State Employment Relations, but some classifications are influenced by collective bargaining as well. A PSICM amount may also be established for employees who are not required to complete a six month probationary period. Pay ranges vary according to federal and state laws, but policies can be implemented by private sector organizations or for public employees.

Payroll records:  Payroll records are a form of documentation which must be maintained by an employer for all individuals in the workplace. This includes the number of hours worked, average pay rates, and deductions for each employee. Payroll records also contain information about health plan contributions, bonuses and sick pay within the last year. According to the Fair Labor Standards Act, all records must be kept accurate and up to date for non-exempt employees. The Wage and Hour Division retains the right to conduct an open inspection of all relevant documentation, so companies are expected to keep payroll records on file for a minimum of three years.

People Aggregator: a sourcing tool that collects data on professionals via the social web and creates composite profiles for evaluation. Examples are Entelo, Connectifier, TalentBin, and Dice Open Web.

Per Diem: A daily allowance paid to contract employees for various expenses such as meals, accommodation and transportation. Per diems can be paid to contractors or regular employees while working at a client site or out of town.

Permanent Employment: A term used for regular employment where the company becomes the employer-of-record and accepts full legal liability under labour law. Permanent employment is a term used less and less as employers and employees become more temporary in outlook.

Personality tests/psychometric testing: Personality tests and psychometric testing can be used to assess a candidate’s
personality and traits. This can help employers to learn more about a candidate and
whether their personality is complementary to the position available.

Phantom stock: A compensation plan that gives the holder of the phantom stock the right to receive a cash payment at a specific time or when a specific event occurs (such as the sale of the company) in the future. This payment is linked to the value of the com- pany’s real stock.

Phone screen: This is a sort of screening process which occurs in the early stages of the hiring
process, usually after filtering out candidates based on their resumes. This is a short
phone interview to deduce whether a candidate could be suitable for a position. An
interview is usually offered to the candidate at the end of the phone interview (if the
phone screen is successful).

Pipeline: a ready pool of candidates with the right qualifications to be considered for a specific role.

Pipelining: Pipelining refers to the process by which talented and qualified individuals are pooled
into a company’s talent community for positions which are currently filled.

Pirate: A slang term for executive search consultant.

Placement: Placement is the process by which the selected candidate is stationed into their
employment position. In this stage of the hiring process, the candidate is told about
their duties and responsibilities and is set to work. Orientation usually follows this

Plan Administrator:  A plan administrator is the company, committee of employees, business executive, or individual an employer selects to be responsible for its retirement plan. The administrator and plan provider ensure government regulations are met and make investment determinations with the contributions from employees and the employer. The plan administrator is responsible for ensuring the fund remains on sound financial footing. Is is also the plan administrator’s duty to provide employees with the information they need to change investments or enroll and select options in the plan, as well as request distributions and apply for a loan if the plan permits them.

Poaching: A slang term for the process of recruiting high value employees from another company, often competitors.

Policy:  A policy is an official procedure and rule tied to employment law that prescribes how particular issues should be handled in the workplace, such as the duties and rights of employees. Employers must adhere to HR policies to avoid government penalties for non-compliance. A successful policies and practices strategy draws boundaries and also recognizes and addresses employees’ needs. It’s important to state consequences for violations of behavioral standards clearly so that employees understand expectations and have adequate notification of any consequences. Also, explicit consequences help ensure that employers are not limited in their options for dealing with employees’ inappropriate behaviors.

Policy/procedures manual:  A policy/procedures manual is a written document that contains details for the reference of a company’s supervisors and managers so that they are well-acquainted with the policies and procedures that they are expected to implement on a daily basis. These policy/procedures manuals are of tremendous importance as they establish a set of expectations for the higher level workers within a company as well as for those they manage or otherwise supervise. Such documents are crucial for chain businesses to ensure uniformity of work quality from location to location. Regardless of business type, establishing expectations is perhaps the best way to ensure high-quality work from one’s employees.

Pool of Candidates: For every open position, there are a number of people who might meet basic qualifications and can be considered worthy of further investigation. This collection of candidates could be large for junior and entry level positions or very small for senior positions.

Position profile: A detailed document that describes the ideal candidate, including key responsibilities and relationships. A marketing tool, the position profile is shared with prospective candidates to sell them on entering the search process.

Post and Pray: a passive recruitment method in which a recruiter places a job opening on an online job board and hopes that great candidates respond with the right qualifications.

Pre-employment screening: Pre-employment screening includes background verification, drug screening, and behavioral assessment.

Pre-Employment Screening (PES): a background check and validation of previous work experience meant to uncover criminal history, workers’ compensation claims, or previous employment issues related to the candidate.

Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) of 1978:  The Pregnancy Discrimination Act revised the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII, a federal discrimination law. It is unlawful to discriminate under Title VII because of childbirth, pregnancy, or a related medical condition. This law covers state and local private and public employers with 15 or more employees. Pregnant women or those affected by related conditions must be handled the same as other employees or applicants with comparable limitations or abilities. Also, employers cannot force employees to use their leave during pregnancy if they can still successfully perform their job. Many states also have statutes recognizing pregnancy discrimination and breastfeeding in the workplace.

Premium only plan (POP):  Premium Only Plans are an excellent solution for saving pre-tax dollars on group insurance premiums for many employers. They are ideal for businesses that want to provide some kind of tax benefits for eligible employees without offering a comprehensive Flexible Spending Account Plan. Instead of providing a pre-tax advantage for benefits sponsored by the employer, such as a Health Savings Account or group insurance, a POP is a cost-effective alternative satisfaction of an employer’s legal obligation. However, while it does save on administration costs and reduce payroll taxes, it doesn’t provide benefits and services equal to a standard FlexSystem FSA.

Premium Pay:  Premium pay refers to the higher wages given to employees who work less desirable hours. This includes holidays, weekends, vacation days or anything over eight hours a day. According to rules set forth by the Fair Labor Standards Act, premium pay needs to be ordered in advance. That means premium pay would need to be ordered and approved before the holiday or weekend when you need your workers on hand. The only exception would be if there are compelling reasons for why premium pay needs to be offered immediately. Every employee needs to be eligible for premium pay. No one can be excluded from receiving it. Additionally, someone who has the power to give overtime pay to employees is not allowed to give overtime pay to himself or herself.

Prepaid Group Legal Plan:  A prepaid group legal plan is a form of legal insurance where a business pays a set amount, and they essentially get a lawyer or team of lawyers on retainer. It works basically like a health insurance plan where you pay a given amount per month or year, and you get specific services at any time. This type of plan is generally offered and recommended to department stores, labor unions and other employers who could benefit from having legal assistance readily at hand. One benefit of acquiring such a plan is that it eliminates the need to look for a lawyer any time you require legal help.

Prescription Drug Benefits:  Prescription drug benefits refer to getting a specific option under a company’s health insurance coverage that allows individuals covered by the plan to get any prescription medication needed. People who have this coverage will need to pay an annual deductible and monthly premium in order to take advantage of the benefits, and people will need to pay a co-pay for any individual prescription. The need for a prescription drug benefit plan came into being due to the progressively complex nature of the medical industry and the increasing reliance on prescription drugs. Anyone who gets this plan under the Medicare Advantage plan has the option to get additional medical expenses covered as well.

Pre-tax contributions:  Pre-tax contributions are those made to an assigned retirement account, pension plan, or another type of tax-deferred investment account in which employees make contributions before federal and state taxes deductions, such as investing in a 401(k) plan. The main tax advantage for employees is contributing to the retirement plan with money that hasn’t been assessed with payroll taxes, allowing them to reduce their tax burden. Pre-tax contributions facilitate postponing paying taxes on the contribution amount and earnings as long as the funds remain in the account. When funds are withdrawn at retirement, taxes will be assessed but often at a lower rate.

Prevailing Wage:  The prevailing wage is the typical benefits, hourly wages and amount of overtime pay that can be obtained by certain sets of workers in certain areas across the country. Mechanics, utility workers and other employees in the field of public works are most likely to receive the prevailing wage, and each county establishes its own wages. The prevailing wage for a certain area is figured out by the Department of Labor and Industries, and it is determined through collective bargaining agreements and surveys. Generally, if more than 50 percent of a certain set of workers receive one hourly wage, then that becomes the prevailing wage for that county.

Principal: Titles such as “Principal Engineer” refer to a senior level employee who oversees the completion of projects. The principal can also refer to the owner of a consultancy.

Probation:  Probation in the workplace refers to testing out a potential job candidate for a position before giving him or her the full status of “employee.” Probationary periods allow employers to see how well someone actually works on the job, and various aspects of the worker’s personality can be observed, including his or her reliability and honesty. The employer decides how long the period will last although usually it is only a month or so. Typically, at the end of the probation, the employee receives a modest raise in wages and may finally be eligible to take advantage of any benefits the company provides.

Probationary Arrangement: a new employee and employer agree that the new employee will work for a set amount of time on a trial or probationary period.

Probationary period:  In the context of a business, a probationary period is a specified amount of time during which the performance of an employee who has been recently hired, transferred or promoted to a new position is evaluated by supervisorial staff. The length of this period is told to the new employees in advance of coming in to work, and it typically lasts anywhere from 30 to 90 days. Though the term may sound somewhat sinister, it is a standard procedure for just about every company so that supervisors can oversee the employee’s work, offer any advice to increase his or her effectiveness, or dismiss the person entirely.

Professional Employer Organization (PEO):  A Professional Employer Organization (PEO) is an organization that establishes a join-employment relationship with some employer. The responsibilities of this relationship go both ways. In exchange for the PEO allowing the employer to lease employees from it, the PEO is then permitted to partake in many of the tasks that are performed by the employer on a regular basis. The employer also outsources several main elements of human resources, usually including employee payroll administration, compensation and benefits, as well as employment taxes and workers’ compensation. If a business-owner is looking for ways to take a major step forward in expansion, a PEO is a solid way of doing it.

Profit sharing plan:  A profit sharing plan is a type of qualified retirement plan for employees that is initiated and maintained by a business-owner. In a profit sharing plan, employees as well as any of their beneficiaries are allowed to partake in the profits of the business. Using this kind of a benefit plan is good for both employees and their employers, especially if the business in question is still in its early stages of development. If a person has just started a business, a large portion of resources need to be dedicated to ensuring the consistent quality of whatever good or service is being offered rather than on extensive employee benefits, so this is a good way to still have an incentive for workers.

Progress Payments: Many executive search firms bill for their services on a periodic basis (either monthly or based on deliverables).

Proposal: Formal contract created by the search firm usually in the form of a letter agreement. The proposal, once signed, is the basis of the search contract and specifies key issues such as guarantees, timing, fees, exclusivity, confidentiality and so on.

Proprietary information:  Proprietary information is any information that deals with the activities, business or products of a company. More specifically, some things that commonly fall under this umbrella include trade secrets, financial data, product research and development, computer software, business processes and marketing strategies. In the vast majority of cases, whenever a new employee signs a contract with a company, that contract goes into detail about the kind of information that is considered proprietary and that should therefore remain within the company. This is largely a kind of insurance for companies to protect the materials that give them their competitive edges on the market.

Prospect: Someone the recruiter thinks might be successful in the role he or she is attempting to fill and who has shown some initial interest. See also suspect.

Protected class:  A protected class is any individual or group of individuals who are safe from discrimination or prejudice under federal law. From the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the concept was first applied to racial minorities and since has been expanded under other federal mandates. Some states also have legislation to determine protected classes that may be in addition to federal law. The intent is to offer protection for traditionally oppressed groups and can include but is not limited to factors such as race, gender, age, religion, veterans, familial status, pregnancy, disability, and citizenship or nation of origin. As civil rights are redefined, more classes may be designated by the government for anti-discrimination protection. See also “protected group.”

Psychological Testing: Many types of standardized methods of evaluating candidates are available. Psychological testing became popular during the 1960's and 1970's by claiming to be able to assess cognitive and emotional functioning of people using scores on standardized tests. Today, psychological testing is used infrequently by large companies (especially in Asia) and almost never by small and mid-sized companies.

Purple Squirrel: A purple squirrel is a term used to describe a candidate who precisely matches all of the employer’s job requirements. Because purple squirrels don’t exist in real life, it is generally considered to be an unobtainable request.

Executive Search: Q

Qualified disabled person:  A qualified disabled person is defined under federal law as any individual with a physical or mental disability who is able to perform job tasks and duties either with or without realistic workplace modifications and adaptations. This class of workers is protected under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504. The federal law is designed to prevent discrimination against persons who may have more than minor limitations due to a documented, long-term or permanent impairment. These individuals would need to possess or be capable of the skills, training, experience, or ability to learn responsibilities related to positions of employment.

Qualified domestic relations order (QDRO):  Qualified domestic relations order (QDRO) is a legal order or decree that requires one party to pay an agreed amount to another party. Usually issued by a family or domestic court, a QRDO generally refers to payments such as alimony, child support, or other property disbursements that are made from a spouse, former spouse, or other familial relation for the benefit of another person. The order is specific for individual cases and would include the name and address of the recipient as well as the compensation amount. The QRDO would need to be in compliance with any federal guidelines for pensions or retirement funds in addition to following instructions from the court judgment.

Qualified medical child support order (QMCSO):  Qualified medical child support order (QMCSO) is an order or decree to provide health insurance coverage for a dependent child, according to a legal agreement or settlement. This type of order would fall under the jurisdiction of a family or domestic relations court or through another administrative agency and comply with federal law as well as state guidelines. It is intended to ensure health coverage through a group insurance plan for the child or minor dependent of the divorced or separated parent or guardian. A QMCSO should include the recipient’s name and last known address as well as an explanation of the medical coverage and the period of time such coverage is to be provided.

Query: String of boolean keywords and operators; can also refer to any search generally speaking (sometimes in the context of SQL and/or relational databases).

Questionnaire: A questionnaire is a list of questions which an interviewer may use during a
candidate’s interview or (more uncommonly) a list of questions which a hiring
manager may give to a candidate to fill out themselves.

Quid Pro Quo:  Quid pro quo is a Latin expression meaning this for that; it refers to the idea of a give and take relationship. For the purposes of a contract, the item or service of value should be equitable to the item or service that it is given for exchange. If not, the contract could be rendered invalid. Quid pro quo is also used for denoting certain types of sexual harassment, when sexual favors or acts may be requested or exchanged for work related benefits, recognition, or responsibilities. It is considered harassment because it frequently involves one party having power or superiority over the other individual.

Executive Search: G

Gag clause:  A gag clause is a provision in an employment contract that prohibits employees from disclosing proprietary information.

Garden Leave: The situation of an employee who is leaving a job for whatever reason is required to not work during a specified period of time. Garden Leave is a common term in the UK and some other Anglo Saxon countries. The purpose is to prevent (or at least delay) former employees from working for a competitor and exploiting sensitive information that naturally becomes less exploitable over time.

Garnishment:  Garnishment is the withholding of a portion of an employee’s pay pursuant to a court order.

Generalist: An HR generalist manages many aspects of the employee experience such as benefits administration, training, onboarding, and employee relations. They may also serve in a recruiting function as needed.

Generalist Recruiters: Search consultants that provide their services across a range of industries and functions. Most search consultants throughout the world, and especially in emerging countries, are generalists -- although most have areas of focus. The big exception is in most large cities of so-called developed countries where search consultants specialize in narrow skill sets and industries. The trend of the global industry is for specialization in markets that are large enough to support it.

Generation I: The term used to describe children born after 1994 who are growing up in a technologically
advanced era or “Internet Age.”

Generation X: The term used to describe individuals born between 1965 and 1980.

Geographical differential: Geographical differentials refer to the differences in salaries between individuals who
do the same job, or are employed in equivalent jobs, due to their different costs of
living, based on the location in which they live.

Ghosting: when a candidate suddenly stops communicating with a recruiter or potential employee.

Gig Worker: an individual who works a job for a specified period of time only.

Glass Ceiling: A barrier in a workplace that prevents employees of certain types to advance to more senior positions in their careers.

Glass Ceiling Act of 1991:  The Glass Ceiling Act was set forth to investigate and raise public awareness of workplace issues such as discrimination and harassment.

Good-faith bargaining:  Good-faith bargaining is a type of negotiation where all parties genuinely wish to reach an agreement and are prepared to use all reasonable methods to achieve a meeting of minds on all important points.

Green card:  A green card is a document issued by immigration authorities that certifies that an immigrant is a United States lawful permanent resident and is legally authorized to reside and work in the U.S.

Grievance:  A grievance is a complaint formally filed by an employee based on allegations of workplace discrimination or harassment.

Grievance procedures:  Grievance procedures are processes established by employers to handle employee complaints or conflicts in the workplace.

Group Interview: A group interview can refer to either 1) a situation in which multiple candidates are interviewed at the same time, such as at a recruiting event, or 2) multiple people interviewing one candidate at the same time (also known as a panel interview). Either way, part of the goal is to see how the candidate interacts with others in a group setting.

Guarantee: Executive search firms provide various contractual assurances to clients. Some of the most common are: promise to replace placed candidates who leave their position for any reason within a certain period, promise not to target client employees for other executive search clients, promise not to recruit employees from companies specified by the client that they may have special relationships with.

Executive Search: H

H1B: a visa in the United States under the Immigration and Nationality Act, section 101 that allows U.S. employers to temporarily employ foreign workers in specialty occupations.

Halo and Horns Effect: coined by psychologist Edward Thorndike in 1920, this term refers to a cognitive bias in which our general impression of a person influences how we feel and think about their character.

hands-off agreement: See off-limits agreement.

Hardship Bonus: Some companies pay expatriate executives extra income to compensate for living and working in difficult or dangerous conditions.

Hazard Communication Standard of 1988:  The Hazard Communication Standard is a federally mandated standard that concerns the evaluation and communication of workplace hazards presented by chemicals

Hazard pay:  Hazard pay is a payment that is made in addition to a worker’s regular salary as a bonus for accepting a job assignment that is hazardous or causes extreme physical discomfort that cannot be avoided by following guidelines or using protective devices.

Headcount Mapping: a method of predicting how many vacant positions will need to be filled within a set period (often a year) and what the cost of hiring for those positions will be.

Headhunter: Much like an executive search consultant, a headhunter is often used to find talent at a corporate level. However, a headhunter often directs its searches towards candidates who are not actively seeking employment.

Headhunters, therefore, have to find the best talent around and actively approach them. In most cases, when they have found the best candidate for the job, they then pass the candidates details to the employer.

This is usually where the headhunter’s responsibilities end. Rather than placing ads, conducting interviews and checking CVs, headhunters are concerned purely with finding talent and presenting it to their client.

So, there’s an overview of some of the most commonly used terminology in recruitment consulting. We hope that this handy guide has helped you make sense of some of the jargon that you’re bound to hear in this exciting and dynamic industry.

Health Care Flexible Spending Account (FSA):  A Health Care Flexible Spending Account (FSA) is a type of employee benefits plan that allows employees to designate a specified amount of pre-tax dollars to go towards plan-approved medical expenses. Some of these expenses include dental, vision, medical exams, deductibles, co-pays, and prescription costs. The money usually covers out-of-pocket costs, and any money that an employee contributes will always be tax-free. Since this money is tax-free, employees will also be expected to save an amount equal to the taxes you would have paid on the saved funds. A special FSA debit card is usually issued in order to give employees immediate access to any funds in their Health Savings Account (HSA).

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996:  The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act is a comprehensive statute that is intended to streamline transfers and changes of health insurance as employees change their employment, while at the same time safeguarding patient privacy and limiting insurer’s rights to deny or limit coverage based on pre-existing conditions.

Health Savings Accounts (HSA):  A Health Savings Account is a tax-free account that allows employees to pay for certain qualified medical expenses. The money in this account will accumulate tax-free, meaning that the funds can be used at any time, regardless of the time of the deposit. In the event that an employee leaves his or her place of employment, he or she will be able to take his or her contributions in order to pay for healthcare. Not all employees will be eligible for a Health Savings Account – eligible employees must be enrolled in a High Deductible Health Plan (HDHP) and cannot be covered by any other health insurance plan. In addition to these restrictions, the enrollee cannot be eligible for Medicare and cannot be classified as a dependent on another person’s tax return. The funds in this account are usually made accessible via the employee’s Healthcare Flexible Spending Account (FSA).

Hidden Job Market: It is well known that the majority of job openings are filled through personal contacts and referrals from employees, friends and industry contacts.

Hiring Bonus: Payments given to newly hired executive managers to ensure they join the employer. Hiring bonuses are most commonly used to compensate executives for earnings they would lose by leaving their current employer. A typical example is an annual bonus that may not be paid for months in the future. Managers may hesitate to leave employers because they will lose rightfully earned compensation. In order to secure the hire, the new employer commits to pay the amount as a signing bonus on starting work or after an agreed period. Sometimes signing bonuses are used to lure high value candidates and are encumbered with retention requirements. (Same as Signing Bonus)

Hiring manager: An individual within a company who is in charge of the hiring process in order to fill a
specific position. The position will typically be in the hiring manager’s department or

team and will likely have the most know-how with regards to picking a suitable

Hiring Period: The hiring period typically begins when an employer offers a job to a candidate and lasts until the new employee has adjusted to the new role.

Hiring Pool: The hiring pool, or applicant pool, is the total number of applicants for a given position.

Hiring process: The entire process that results in a vacant position being filled, from the stage in
which the need for a new employee is identified, to posting a job advertisement, to
screening candidates, interviewing candidates, offering the selected candidate a job,
hiring a candidate and onboarding that candidate.

HM: an abbreviation for Hiring Manager.

Home-Based Worker:  A home-based worker is an employee who performs his or her job from home rather than a designated workspace at an employer’s site. Home-based workers perform their responsibilities and tasks from home and usually stay in contact with the employer via phone or the internet. This type of arrangement has traditionally been rare but is increasing in popularity due to employer savings and new communication methods. Although the majority of their work is performed at home, home-based workers may sometimes be expected to sporadically visit their employer’s workspace. Other home-based workers are self-employed, providing their own goods or services from their place of residence. From a human resources perspective, these home-based workers can save companies thousands of dollars a year since the company no longer has to provide work space, job materials or other amenities.

Hostile Environment Harassment:  Hostile environment harassment occurs when an employee faces discrimination or harassment that is so severe and widespread that it prevents him or her from properly performing the job. This type of harassment may be threatening, offensive, intimidating, or humiliating, and it is possible for an employee to be subject to harassment and discrimination from multiple parties. This type of work environment is not only detrimental to productivity, but it can also have a profoundly negative impact on the mental, emotional, and physical health of employees. Employers who engage in or encourage hostile environment harassment are oftentimes subject to legal action from employees since such behavior almost always violates state and federal employment laws. Preventing hostile environment harassment is an important part of human resource management.

Hostile Work Environment: A hostile work environment is one in which unwelcome comments or conduct based on sex, race or other characteristics interferes with an employee’s work performance or creates an intimidating or offensive environment.

HR analytics and data-driven recruiting: These are recruitment methods which rely on data produced by Human Resources
technology in order to make decisions throughout the hiring process.

HR software: This is software which allows HR tasks to be managed and automated.

Human Capital Management: Human Capital Management refers to the challenge of recruiting and retaining qualified candidates and
assisting new employees to adjust to an organization. The major facets of human capital management
typically include Recruitment, Compensation, Training, and Benefits.

Human Resource Auditing:  Human resource auditing is the process of evaluating various human resource programs and practices in order to determine whether or not they serve their intended purposes. This process is extremely thorough and usually involves multiple individuals and assessments. The audit will typically investigate company compliance with laws and procedures, and identify areas where improvement is needed. If the company does comply with the rules and procedures set forth by government regulations and company policy, the human resource audit will determine whether or not they are being implemented properly. Companies that schedule periodic human resource audits will gain in-depth knowledge about the structure of the company and the behavior of its employees. The audit will also determine the amount of human capital the company currently has access to.

Human Resource Development:  Human resource development involves planning specific activities in order to provide a business or organization with the skills, knowledge, and practices it will need to increase productivity. The development process is usually performed by human resource workers and company executives. The major goal of development is to determine whether or not the company possesses the human capital it needs to meet current and future corporate demands. Common activities include employee training, modifying existing operational procedures and hiring new workers and management. All of these activities are undertaken in order to boost productivity and increase company revenue in the most efficient manner possible. The process of human resource auditing is usually employed in order to determine what steps need to be taken during the development stage.

Human Resource Information System (HRIS):  A human resource information system, or HRIS for short, is a computer database that is used to compile, store, organize, and retrieve employee or human resource related data. These programs are employed by the vast majority of major companies, and they provide the HR department with easy access to employee-provided information. This information is used for professional purposes and is usually updated on a periodic basis. The database typically contains information regarding employees’ professional background, contact information, previous company infractions or violations, and any other information that a company deems necessary in order to maintain a productive, safe, and professional work environment. Information in the database is usually confidential to the majority of employees, with the exception of human resource workers and supervisory workers.

Human Resource Management:  Human resource management is a formal structure within a company or organization that handles all decisions, procedures, activities related to the management of employees. This involves ensuring that all employees adhere to company policies, resolving disputes between employees, and addressing employee concerns regarding workplace practices. In the event that a worker is accused of harassment or other illegal behavior, the corporate management structure will usually launch an investigation. Human resource management also requires workers to identify unproductive employees and offer those employees access to programs or training that will help them perform their jobs more efficiently. Human resource managers typically interact with employees at all levels of the corporate structure. These professionals often employ a human resource information system (HRIS) to make their jobs easier.

Human resource management system:  A Human Resources Management System is a software application consolidating a variety of human resources duties into one package, such as performance analysis and reviews, recruiting and hiring, and payroll and benefits administration. An HRMS may automates the workplace to transform time consuming and repetitive duties associated with human resources management. The result is freeing up many of the organization’s key workers and shifting the focus to retention, culture, and other highly influential areas. Functions include tracking accomplishments, salaries, abilities, skills, and employee histories. Replacing particular processes disseminates information management responsibilities so that the majority of data gathering is not assigned just to HR.

Human resource metrics:  HR metrics are a vital method for quantifying the impact and cost of HR processes and employee programs. It is also a strategy for measuring the progress or collapse of HR actions. HR metrics can uncover a business’s strengths and vulnerabilities and facilitate an understanding of the areas requiring focus or improvement as well as those ready for capitalization. From fundamental HR capability to revealing the precise value of each new worker, HR metrics are priceless for evaluating your business and devising future approaches. The most intuitive, user-friendly HR administration programs can make employing HR metrics easy, straightforward, and uncomplicated.

Human resource outsourcing: Human Resource outsourcing is the result of a decision that a company makes to
have human resource responsibilities transferred to a source outside of the company.
An independent business is responsible for all human resource related tasks and

Human resource planning:  Human resource planning is the systematic forecasting of the existing supply of and future demand for employees. It also involves strategically deploying their skills to meet the goals and objectives of the business. The goal of HR planning is ensuring an ideal fit between jobs and workers and circumventing labor surpluses or shortages. Balancing predicted labor markets, analyzing existing labor supply, and forecasting work needs are the three essential components of the HR planning process. By combining human resource management systems and strategies, HR planning facilitates achievement of the overall mission, strategies, and success of the organization while satisfying obligations to employees and other stakeholders.

Human Resources:  Human resources is the department of an organization that manages the workers employed within that business or organization. Human resource professionals spend a significant amount of time reviewing employment applications, contacting potential applicants, and even conducting interviews. These same people are also charged with ensuring that all local, state and federal employment laws are being adhered to by all workers within the company. If accusations of misconduct or disputes arise, human resource workers will usually be responsible for conducting thorough investigations into the matter. The job of a human resource worker involves the handling of payroll, benefit, and employee training issues. Resource workers may also conduct orientation sessions for new employees, as well as meetings to discuss issues that are relevant to current employees. These workers also facilitate human resource development programs in order to increase productivity within the organization.

Executive Search: I

I-9 form: The I-9 form, aka Employment Eligibility Verification, is a form required by U.S
companies as it proves your right to work in the U.S.

Illegal immigrant/alien:  The law clearly states that employers have an affirmative duty to verify that each of their employees is authorized to work in the United States. Following the steps in the Form I-9, Employment Eligibility Verification, verifies that persons are eligible to work in the United States. It also alerts employers if a discrepancy occurs with an employee’s Social Security number or immigration status information. The steps are designed to ensure that organizations comply with the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, which makes it illegal for companies to employ people who are not authorized to work in the United States.

Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986:  The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 contains three parts

Implied Contract:  An implied contract refers to an agreement where all parties agree to a certain action even though nothing is expressly said or written down. For example, there is an implied contract between a doctor and patient wherein the doctor will do his or her best to take care of the individual, and at the end of the appointment, the patient will pay any associated fees. One variation of an implied contract is an implied warranty. This refers to a customer purchasing a product on the assumption that it will perform its intended function. A customer buying a toaster could reasonably assume that this product will warm up bread.

Inbound recruiting: Inbound recruiting focuses on making the company attractive to potential candidates,
by creating content and using social media marketing to target talented candidates
and highlight the company’s competitive advantages.

Incentive Pay:  Incentive pay refers to giving employees bonuses or other forms of compensation in exchange for going above and beyond their normal duties. It is used as a way to incentivize employees to continue doing excellent work. A cash bonus toward the end of the year for the holidays is a common form of this benefit, and some employees are capable of earning a commission by making sales, which would also fall under incentive pay. Employers can also reward workers for superior performance by offering casual incentives. This refers to giving workers non-monetary items such as gifts or paying for an employee’s lunch.

Incentive Pay Plan:  An incentive pay plan is a system a company will have to incentivize employees to perform excellently. A clear structure needs to be laid out that clearly states what employees need to do in order to earn the bonus, and it has to state what exactly the bonus is. Incentives can vary from business to business. Some companies offer workers commissions based on sales while others offer profit sharing, stock options or a lump sum monetary bonus. These plans are typically created in order to attract better employees and to retain individuals already working for the business. In order for the plan to be effective, the goals must be obtainable or else morale could go down.

Incentive Stock Option:  An incentive stock option is a common form of an employee stock option that comes with a tax benefit. This benefit is generally reserved for high-level employees, and while they do come with more advantageous tax treatment, the owner of the stock option must hold onto it longer than similar options in order to get the most out of it. These options can come with a vesting schedule, which states that a certain amount of time must pass in order for the employee to exercise all of his or her options. There are several different ways in which options can be exercised such as utilizing a stock swap or exercising a cashless transaction.

Independent Contractor:  Independent contractors are self-employed, and they are any individual or business that does work for another party at a specified rate. An individual who is an independent contractor is not an employee for any business. Instead, the contractor does whatever work is stated within the contract, and once the job is finished, the person is free to go work with other organizations. Someone working as an independent contractor is subject to pay a self-employment tax as long as they make more than $600 for any one business. Income taxes are not withheld from an independent contractor’s paychecks. Numerous professions can qualify as independent contractors, including auctioneers, accountants, doctors, veterinarians and many more.

Indirect Compensation:  Indirect compensation includes non-monetary benefits provided to workers, such as pension funds, mobile phones, company cars, health and life insurance, overtime pay, and annual leave. In fact, it includes everything from legally obligated health insurance to social security, child care, and more. It is essential to understand that employers can include standard contractual, non-monetary features covering annual leave, as well as valuable benefits such as healthcare, in indirect compensation. Indirect compensation differs from direct compensation, which is monetary compensation paid directly to employees for their services, starting with their salary. Instead of being paid directly to an employee, indirect compensation is calculated as an extra component of the base salary.

Indirect costs:  Indirect costs are not accountable to a particular object, event, or activity directly. They may be variable or fixed and include personnel, security, and administration costs. They are frequently added to overhead funds and then allotted to various activities, based on an allocation process that has a perceived or actual association between the activity and indirect cost. Indirect costs make possible the production of cost articles without being assigned to a specific product. When clerical support also helps manage the complete office aids of the organization instead of just one product group, their labor can be calculated as an indirect cost.

Indirect Labor:  Indirect labor refers to the hours that employees spend on projects that cannot be tracked or billed to specific products or production units. It is the wages paid to support workers whose duties do not contribute to the performance of services or manufacture of goods directly, but rather enables others to produce goods. For instance, custodians are employed to keep factory facilities clean, security guards maintain a safe work area, and managers supervise the production workers. Each of these workers is included in indirect labor because they do not produce any products. Other examples of workers employed in indirect labor include maintenance staff, accountants, and managers.

Individual Contributor: An individual contributor does not manage any other staff members.

Individual Contributor (IC): someone who does not formally lead or manage other people.

Individual employment agreement: This agreement is a contract between the employer and the employee, whereby the
employee agrees to work for the figure stipulated in the contract.

Individual retirement account:  An individual retirement account is a method for establishing a retirement savings plan. Usually, an IRA allows you to defer taxes until after you retire. It is tool for setting aside funds with eligible tax-free distributions. Although withdrawals and capital gains from IRAs are taxed as income, the tax rate may be lower because income is likely less after retirement. The government establishes annual contribution limits that rise with inflation. However, contributors age 50 and older can make slightly higher contributions to catch up. The inherent tax savings of contributing to the account make IRAs significantly worthwhile individual tax management tools.

Industry Map: Recruiters specializing in certain industries or functions often build an organizational chart for each company in their target industries and, through on-going research, collect detailed information about each person in senior management positions.

Informal reference check: The process of confirming a candidate’s background and experience through sources other than those provided by the candidate. These sources can include regulatory filings, online information, and (most important) conversations with former colleagues, supervisors, clients, vendors, and competitors. The informal reference check must be conducted delicately and confidentially so as not to jeopardize the candidate’s career or standing in the business community.

Informed Candidate: An informed candidate is one who has researched the position and your company through research. Research can include reviewing company reports, news articles, and employer reviews as well as informal networking conversations.

Informed Consent:  Throughout the employment relationship, employers are obligated to process the confidential data of their employees. Informed consent means that private information cannot be utilized unless the employee provides approval, it is essential to the employment contract, mandatory for complying with legal obligations, or for protecting the requisite interests of the employee. However, many employers prefer to obtain employee consent to upon hiring them instead of relying on alternative stipulations. Informed consent is regarded as difficult to challenge and transparent because it involves the agreement of the employee. Also, because it is perceived as being less open to interpretation, it is a reliable and safe option.

In-House: existing within an organization; without assistance from outside the organization; internal.

In-house recruiters: work for the same company for which they find and place candidates. Their primary responsibilities include sourcing, reviewing applications, screening candidates, and setting up interviews with hiring teams. Companies often use a combination of internal and external recruiters, based on staffing needs.

Injunction:  An injunction is a court order stating that a company must do something or seize from doing a certain action. Injunctions are often granted when monetary damages are not sufficient to remedy a given situation. For example, an industrial plant dumping waste into a lake may be served an injunction to stop that activity. Different types of injunctions can be served. A preliminary injunction may be given in order to stop a corporation from doing a certain activity temporary while the lawsuit is still pending. If the corporation were to be found guilty, then a permanent injunction would likely be served.

Insourcing: A term for filling a position with a person who is already employed with the company. Internal candidates should always be a first consideration for open positions.

Insubordination:  Insubordination occurs when an employee refuses to do an action asked of him or her by a superior. In order to determine if the refusal of an action is indeed insubordination, certain aspects must be proved. The refusal of the action must be both deliberate and willful. The expectations for the employee must have been clearly communicated to the worker at the beginning of employment, and the orders being given to the employee must be within the scope of his or her responsibilities. If an employee is asked to do something illegal or unethical, then it would not be insubordinate of the individual to refuse.

Intake (role): The act of taking in the information about a role from a client or hiring manager. Details include function, responsibilities, culture, experience, etc.

Intellectual Property:  Intellectual property refers to any ideas or knowledge that have value in the marketplace. This can include artistic works such as novels, songs or films. It can also include a new invention or process created by a company. Trademarks, copyrights and patents can be filed on certain items so that the person holding the recognition earns some form of financial compensation. Intellectual property can also include the name of businesses and trade secrets. In the event that someone has imitated or infringed on an individual’s or company’s IP, a lawsuit can be filed in order to try to receive damages.

Interim Executive: A senior manager with proven specific skills put in place for a short-term assignment to oversee a transformation, resolve a crisis or watch over an organization until a permanent person can be found.

Interim Leadership: Interim leaders work to fill C-suite and executive positions on a nonpermanent basis while a permanent leader is found.

Internal Candidate: A person currently working within an organization who is being considered for a position within the same organization. It is not uncommon for employers to consider internal and external candidates simultaneously. Hiring managers typically inform search consultants of the existence of internal candidates and to include them in their short-list of candidates.

Internal recruiter: An internal recruiter is an employee within a company whose job it is to try and fill
positions within the company from the company’s existing workforce, either by
promoting individuals or by conducting internal transfers.

Internship: An internship is a short-term training period with an employer, with or without pay and is usually geared toward students.

Interpretive Guidelines on Sexual Harassment:  Interpretive guidelines on sexual harassment exist in order to establish what constitutes sexual harassment and what a business is responsible for in terms of preventing it from happening and dealing with it when it arises. Guidelines include information about what is considered sexual abuse, which can include inappropriate verbal statements, inappropriate physical actions and punishing someone professionally for not giving into a sexual advancement. Guidelines exist regarding how people in HR are supposed to deal with sexual harassment claims. Every claim needs to be taken seriously, and certain actions must be taken to acquire all the information surrounding an incident and potentially reprimanding the harasser in question.

Interview:  Job interviews are conducted in order for a hiring manager to determine if a certain applicant is qualified to receive the open position within a company. Interviews are typically held after a business has posted a job listing and has received numerous resumes. Generally, interviews are conducted one-on-one, but it is also possible to have group interviews where multiple people within the business talk to the candidate at the same time. Interviews primarily consist of the hiring manager asking the interviewee questions regarding their background and experience level. Depending on the type of job looking to be filled, several rounds of interviews can take place in order to find the best person.

Interview Process: The interview process, or hiring process, is the progression of steps for screening and interviewing candidates until an offer is made.

Interview Review: A candidate can leave a review of their interview experience on Glassdoor. They are asked to rate the difficulty level, the experience as a whole, and provide a sample question. This information helps candidates find out what expect and helps employers learn what’s working or what needs to be improved in their interview process.

Interview to offer ratio:  The interview to offer ratio of a workplace is the number of job offers extended, relative to the number of job interviews that have been conducted. For example, if a business interviews 20 candidates for various positions and then extends two job offers, the interview to offer ration is 1 to 10. In general, more reputable businesses will enjoy a higher interview to offer ratio since they tend to attract more qualified and competitive candidates. However, the figures that constitute a high ratio can vary a great deal between industries, geographic areas and the candidate’s experience level.  It may be possible for a business to improve its interview to offer ratio by crafting stronger job descriptions for use in posting and being more selective when calling candidates for interview.

Interviewing Terms: Keeping on top of interview terms will help you be prepared to respond to any new types of interview requests.

Invitation to self-identify:  An invitation to self-identify is an optional question on a job application that allows the applicant to identify as a veteran or person with a disability. Some organizations also invite existing employees to self-identify using a standard form. Invitations to self-identify are used in affirmative action efforts and to collect data on hiring practices for the federal government. Applicants without disabilities or veteran status are also able to self-identify to aid in gathering information. Self-identification is collected and reported to the US Department of Labor confidentially. Self-identifying is optional but strongly encouraged. It does not result in any adverse treatment for the employee or applicant.

Executive Search: J

JD: an abbreviation for job description.

Job Accommodation Network (JAN):  The Job Accommodation Network (JAN) is a service that helps workers with disabilities get and retain jobs for which they are qualified. It is facilitated by the United States Department of Labor’s Office of Disability Employment Policy to provide information to individuals with disabilities as well as small and large businesses. The primary functions of JAN include providing instruction on how to make workplaces more accessible to employees with disabilities, as well as educating disabled workers on their rights when it comes to asking for accommodations on the job. The organization also provides information on starting small businesses and entrepreneurship for people with disabilities.

Job advertisement: This is an advertisement which a company posts, which aims to make a job vacancy
known to potential candidates, in order to fill a particular position.

Job aids:  Job aids are instructional tools that allow workers to quickly remember or access the information they need to perform their jobs. Some examples include instructional cards, charts or posters that give a relatively large amount of information at a glance. Mnemonic devices and acronyms that cover the key points required to do a job are also useful job aids. Job aids are designed to remind workers of information they have already been taught and know, not teach them new information on the spur of the moment. In general, good job aids have a strong visual component to them and may include pictures, diagrams or flowcharts.

Job analysis:  A job analysis is a method of collecting data in which the duties of a given job are determined and then assigned relative importance. It may also include information about the skills and training necessary to perform a certain job. The ultimate goal of job analysis is to aid in hiring and assigning tasks at a given organization by determining which people are most qualified for a given job. In general, job analyses combine hard data about the tasks certain jobs require employees to perform regularly, as well as psychological information about which personality traits an employee should possess in order to succeed at a given job.

Job bank:  A job bank is a collection of retired employees who are utilized when part-time or short-term job needs arise.

Job board: A website designed to connect active job seekers with employers with relevant job openings. Employers often maintain their own job boards in addition to using third-party ones. Job boards can be general or specific to an industry, function, or geographic location.

Job classification: Job classification involves classifying jobs based on the responsibilities, activities and
duties involved, as well as the level of authority that job gives an employee.

Job codes:  Job codes are individualized sets of numbers assigned to different jobs in order to identify which class a position belongs to.

Job Counsellors: Firms offering job search services directly to individuals. The concept is similar to outplacement except that individuals pay for the service themselves. As in all professional services, fees and quality levels can vary tremendously. Also called Career Counsellors.

Job description:  A job description includes all the essential details and descriptions regarding tasks and responsibilities of an employee in a specific position.

Job displacement:  Job displacement occurs when an employer removes a position that is currently being held by an employee. Displacement may be caused by several factors, including economic recessions and company restructuring. Several classes of workers are generally at a higher risk for displacement, including those with lower levels of education or experience. While younger personnel may be displaced due to fewer years on the job, they usually find work sooner than older displaced workers. Job displacement refers to involuntary job loss and not mutual or employee-instituted termination. Displacement can have life-long impacts on employees, as many must gain new skills or certifications to enter the labor force in a different capacity.

Job evaluation: A job evaluation is an assessment of a particular job’s worth, in relation to the difficulty
of the job and the importance of the job to the company, in order to determine how
that job’s salary should compare to other jobs within the company.

Job grade:  A job grade is a grouping that encompasses positions with the same or similar values in order to assign compensation rates and structures.

Job Hopper: A slang phrase for a person who changes employers regularly. For management candidates, remaining less than 2-3 years with a number of previous employers, is considered a cause for concern.

Job offer letter: This is a letter which an employer sends to a candidate to inform them that they have
succeeded in securing the position should they choose to accept it.

Job Order: Clients provide information about a position opening specifying the description of the job to be done, title, reporting relationships, skills required, experience and so forth. (same as Requirement)

Job Posting: A job posting is used to recruit candidates for an open vacancy within an organization. This document includes descriptions of duties associated with the position, qualifications required of the applicant, screening methods and terms and conditions of employment.

Job requirements: Job requirements are the requirements that need to be met by a candidate in order to
be deemed suitable for a job. Some examples of job requirements include: having
certain qualifications, having technical skills or specific knowledge, or being proficient
in a certain language.

Job requisition: A job requisition is a form which the hiring manager fills out to request a new hire. It
involves an explanation of why a new employee is needed, as well as the job title and
how much it will cost to hire the new employee.

Job search engine: A job search engine is a site that lists job vacancies, both from job boards and straight
from employers and which allows individuals looking for work to browse and apply for
these jobs.

Job seeker: A job seeker is an individual who is looking for a job.

Job Title:  A job title is a specific name given to a position that indicates the main responsibilities of the individual that will occupy that position.

Job Transfer: A job transfer occurs when an employee takes a position in another department. When the new position is at the same level as the former position, it’s called a lateral transfer. A transfer can be voluntary (in which the employee chooses to move departments) or involuntary, (in which the employee is assigned to another department or region for organizational reasons).

Joint Employment:  Joint employment occurs when an individual is employed by at least two entities, which are responsible together, and individually, for compliance with employment regulations.

Executive Search: K

Key performance indicators (KPI):  A key performance indicator (KPI) is a measurable value that helps companies know if they are meeting their most important business objectives. KPIs can be used at any level of businesses, from top management to individual departments and project teams. The most successful KPIs are specific and measurable; the goal of these indicators is to provide hard data on where a business is succeeding and where it needs to improve. It is generally a good idea to favor quantitative indicators – those that can be expressed with a number or a value – over qualitative indicators that cannot be expressed with a number. A good KPI also needs to realistically attainable, and so should include a time frame for completion.

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs): A key performance indicator is a certain factor which can be measured and which is
the designated indicator to rate the performance within a particular area of a

Keyword: any significant word or phrase that you would expect to find within a resume, profile, or other database entity.

Keyword Family: a collection of keyword groups that are highly related and tied together conceptually. In general, you should build Boolean using ‘OR’s within keyword families and ‘AND’s between families.

Keyword Group: a collection of iterations on a single keyword, phrase, or concept that may appear within a profile or resume. In general, you should build boolean using ‘OR’s within keyword groups and ‘AND’s between groups.

Keywords: Keywords are terms that are relevant to the position being searched.

Knock-out question: A knockout question is a question, asked in the earliest stages of the hiring process,
designed to ‘knock out’ candidates who do not have the necessary abilities,
qualifications or willingness to perform the roles required in the position.

Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO): This is a type of outsourcing whereby companies reach out to individuals who are
extremely knowledgeable about a certain area. This is less costly than hiring an
individual with this specialized knowledge base full-time.

Knowledge worker:  A knowledge worker is an employee whose primary contribution to the workplace is knowledge of a specific subject. Some examples of knowledge workers include physicians, academics, engineers and architects. Knowledge workers may be said to think for a living, rather than performing manual or interpersonal tasks. While most jobs require some degree of knowledge work, employees designated as knowledge workers are generally differentiated by their ability to solve problems and develop new resources in their specific field of expertise. The number of employees who may be classified as knowledge workers has grown since the term was coined in 1969, notably due to a move towards workplace collaboration that values contributions from all workers.

Knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs):  Knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) is a term for the unique set of qualifications and attributes in individual needs to perform a certain job. They are generally associated with applications for federal government jobs which require job seekers to write several personal narrative statements detailing their unique KSAs. Determining to right KSAs for a specific position can help a hiring manager refine the job search, focusing only on candidates who are best suited for the position. In the context of KSAs, knowledge refers to the applicant’s body of information, skills refers to the tasks he or she can perform and abilities refers to the capability to perform a certain task to acceptable standards.

Knowledge, Skills, Abilities (KSA): the knowledge, skills, abilities required to perform a job well.

KSA: This is a commonly used acronym used by HR for Knowledge, Skills and Abilities.

Executive Search: L

Labor certification:  Labor certification is a step in the application process for foreign nationals to become United States citizens. It is generally a rather lengthy process in which it is proven that there are no qualified US workers for the job to which the foreign citizen is applying. Labor certification often takes months or even years, and requires of an established US business that wants to hire the foreign worker. Foreign citizens working in the United States under a temporary visa such as an H-1 visa may generally continue their employment while the labor certification process is underway, even if they are working for a different employer than the one that wants to hire them permanently.

Labor cost: The total labor cost is the total cost associated with a company’s workforce, including
all the employees’ wages, benefits and insurance costs.

Labor force:  The labor force of a country or other geographical region is the number of people who are able to work, regardless of whether they are currently employed or seeking employment. Individuals who qualify for the labor force are generally those who are old enough to legally begin work and younger than retirement age. Labor force numbers also exclude individuals with disabilities that prevent them from taking part in the workforce. Sometimes the term labor force is also used to refer only to civilian workers, excluding current members of the armed forces. Homemakers and unpaid caregivers may also be excluded from labor force numbers.

Labor Law Posting:  A Labor Law Posting is a document that must be conspicuously displayed in the workplace to inform employees and some job applicants of their rights. Different federal and state agencies may require these postings. Each determines the required size and placement of individual postings. Some notices or updates may be printed as a memo or bulletin, but the most common are large posters that may not be resized. They must be made clearly visible in an area that all employees have unrestricted access to and frequently assemble near. It is common to place these postings in break rooms or near time clocks. Companies may create online postings for employees that work remotely, but physical postings must still be displayed at the main business location.

Labor market: The labor market is a location where employers can find employees and people
looking for work can find employers.

Labor turnover: Labor turnover is the percentage of a company’s workforce that leaves the company
in the course of the year.

Labor-Management Contract:  A Labor-Management Contract is an agreement made between the workers and the leadership of a company. It is binding and enforceable in court. These agreements protect the rights of both the employees and company. Attorneys for both sides of the agreement establish the wage rates, working conditions, and benefits that employees will receive while performing specific services for the company. Employees under a contract enjoy greater employment stability and often receive higher levels of compensation than others in similar occupations. Companies tend to benefit from these agreements as well. A firm uses these agreements to mitigate disputes before they arise and stabilize their operating costs.

Lateral Hiring: A lateral hire occurs when a candidate is hired who was at the same level of experience and responsibilities in his or her previous organization.

Lateral Job Transfer: a move to another position at the same organization with relatively the same level of responsibility and pay.

Lateral Move: A job transfer that involves in similar responsibilities and compensation.

Layoff:  A layoff is the termination of the employment status of a hired worker. This is an action initiated by the employer. The former employee may no longer perform work related services or collect wages. In some instances, a layoff is only a temporary suspension of employment, and at other times it is permanent. Layoffs are usually the result of economic downturns. A company may choose to reduce the size of its workforce to reduce costs until the situation improves. Unlike termination for misconduct, a layoff has fewer negative repercussions for the worker. The employee remains eligible for rehire and often has positive work experience and references that are useful during a job search. The former employee may also be eligible for unemployment benefits, retraining, and other forms of support.

Lead: A lead is usually an employee who has a high level of responsibility but does not manage other employees.

Lead Generation: the initiation of interest into products or services of a business.

Lead Nurturing: the process of developing relationships with buyers at every stage of the sales funnel, and through every step of the buyer's journey.

Leadership pipeline: A sub-component of a succession plan. A leadership pipeline is used to identify and prepare top-performing employees for leadership roles.

Letter of Inquiry: A ‘letter of inquiry’ or ‘letter of interest’ is sent to organizations that could be hiring but have not listed job openings.

Libel:  Libel is an illegal activity in which an individual damages the reputation of another using written communication. In most instances, a court will find the offender to be guilty of libel if malicious intent can be proven and if financial damage has been caused as a result of harmful comments. Disgruntled employees and former employees may choose the vent their frustrations by making disparaging remarks about their employer or the products and services offered by their company. Social media posts are a common source of these remarks, but not all negative comments made by angry employees are libelous. Employees have the right to gather publicly to discuss working conditions. Fair criticisms and reporting an employer’s illegal actions to the authorities are protected activities.

LinkedIn: Considered the most popular social networking tool for professional candidates. It is being steadily used more and more for job seekers to find employers.

LIR: an abbreviation for LinkedIn Recruiter.

Living Wage:  A living wage is a set amount of compensation for performing work related services that meets a certain standard of living. The specific standard of living is highly subjective and tends to be determined based on the values of the organization representing the interests of the worker. Employees with a living wage are thought to have the ability to provide for their own basic needs and the needs of their families. Economic indicators, such as the local minimum wage rate or the current inflation rate, are used to help estimate the rate of compensation that meets this standard. Rapid changes in the price levels of essential goods such as fuel or healthcare costs can skew these estimates.

Lobbing: Search firms passed over for assignments sometimes send unsolicited resumes to clients to entice them to change their minds.

Local Expat: People working in a foreign country for an extended period of time who have chosen to remain permanently and work on local terms. Local expats can be valuable for many companies since they have proven success in the local country and understand the requirements of international organizations. They are typically less expensive than full expatriates since they do not require an expatriate package. (see Expat Package above).

Long list: A list of candidates created in the early stages of a search engagement. See also

Long-List: Recruiting term for the large inventory of candidates created in the early stages of a search engagement. The number of potentially qualified candidates on a long-list can be less than 10 or more than 50 depending on the specialized needs of the client and type of position.

Long-listing candidates: This is the list of candidates who have been screened by a talent sourcer. The sourcer will have identified these candidates as suitable for further consideration, typically by the on-site recruiter.

Long-Term Care Insurance:  Long-Term Care Insurance is a policy that some employees carry to protect themselves against the financial hardships caused by long term health problems. These policies are offered by some employers as optional supplemental insurance that can be added to a health care plan. They cover the medical and non-medical costs of health related problems that extend beyond a standard medical need. Benefits start after a set time of disability following a qualifying event. They may cover lost wages and help workers to maintain their lifestyles while meeting obligations to other family members. Skilled trade professionals that depend on their physical health for employment most commonly benefit from these plans.

Executive Search: R

Rainmaker: A person who is highly successful at closing new business for professional services firms. Rainmakers are not usually just good sales people but key people in firms (senior executives, partners or owners). They often allocate client engagements to others in their firms who will deliver results while going on to develop other new business. Sometimes clients mistakenly believe rainmakers will play an active role in the engagements they sell but this will usually not be the case in most mid-sized and especially large search firms.

Ratcheting: Unethical behaviour by some recruiters to present candidates earning above market compensation to ensure an above market placement fee -- since fees are calculated as a percentage of compensation.

Recommendation Letter: A document written by a previous employer describing a person's past work experience and endorsing him or her for a position. Recommendation letters have come into bad repute since they are often given to terminated employees so they will go quietly.

Recruiter: A person who fills job openings. A recruiter’s job includes reviewing each candidate’s job experiences, negotiating salaries, and placing candidates in amenable positions. Also known as a headhunter.

Recruiting Firm: Recruiting firms source, assess and refer qualified candidates to be hired as employees by client organizations. Staffing firms, on the other hand, focus on providing temporary help or contract workers to clients for fixed periods.

Recruiting Funnel: The recruiting funnel is a term used to describe all the aspects of the hiring process. It includes candidate awareness, consideration, application, interviewing, and making the hire.

Recruiting metrics: These are measurements which allow companies to analyze the recruitment process
and monitor hiring success, in order to improve the recruitment process and reap
better hiring results in the future.

Recruitment:  Recruitment refers to the process of attracting the best candidates for a certain position at a company. Numerous steps are considered essential to the recruitment process, including creating a job description that accurately summarizes what an employer needs out of a new worker and what benefits the company has to offer its employees. It also involves screening and interviewing various applicants to see who is best qualified for the job. Once the best candidate is selected, he or she will need to be integrated into the workplace environment. Training programs may be in place to give new employees the tools they need to succeed.

Recruitment Advertising: Giving public notice of open positions and inviting applications. Recruitment advertising is popular for junior and entry level level positions but a disappearing practice for senior management recruiting in most countries since it yields mainly Active Candidates (see definition). Some regulated organizations have legal requirements to advertise all open positions.

Recruitment Consultant: Let’s start with the most common term of all. The recruitment consultant. Recruitment consultants are used by business to help them fill any vacancies in their company. They are responsible for placing job notices and attracting the right client for the job. In some cases, they can assist in interviewing the staff, too.

In order to be a recruitment consultant, you should have fantastic interpersonal skills. Building client relationships is one of the most important aspects of this jobs, so this is an absolutely essential skill quality.

The term recruitment consultant can also be used as an umbrella term for the following definitions.

Recruitment Management System (RMS): A recruitment management system is a software solution that automates and manages all the aspects of recruiting, including attracting, identifying, assessing, and hiring candidates.

Recruitment marketing: Recruitment marketing’s purpose is to increase the reputation of the company as a
place of work and to make it more attractive to potential candidates through branding
and advertising.

Recruitment Plan: A recruitment plan is a identifies the goals for a particular position and often includes (but is not limited to) the recruitment announcement, recruiting timeline, advertising plan, interview schedule, assessment tools (such as questionnaires), background checks, interview plans, and references.

Recruitment Process Outsourcing: Recruitment Process Outsourcing (RPO) agencies manage an organization’s permanent recruiting efforts enterprise wide, within a specific department or for a specific short-term project (such as hiring sales people for a new product launch).

RPO recruiters effectively become part of your company. They function as an extension of your team and may even be based onsite at your company’s offices.

The RPO team owns the design and execution of the recruitment process. They drive continuous improvement and assume responsibility for results. Companies of all sizes turn to RPO solutions for their scalability and flexibility. RPO solutions are also valued for their ability to disseminate best practices.

RPO can be delivered as a short-term project, or even as an end-to-end solution.

Recruitment Process Outsourcing (RPO): Recruitment process outsourcing (RPO) is when a company hires an external firm to act like its own recruiting department. This differs from traditional external hiring firms in that the RPO firm takes responsibility for the entire recruiting process and may assume the identity and recruiting technologies of the client.

Recruitment Timeline: A recruitment timeline is an outline of a schedule including estimated dates for each step and deadline of the recruitment process.

reference check: A systematic and methodical investigation into a candidate’s past job performance based on conversations with people who have worked with him or her. Like an employment interview, reference checking is most effective when it is thoughtfully integrated into the hiring process.

Reference Checking:  Even though reference checks are inexpensive and fairly easy to obtain, many business owners overlook this valuable tool for screening applicants. Reference checking can fill in the blanks a resume may have, plus give behind-the-scene insight into a candidate’s history and background. Why do employers sidestep the all-important background check For one thing, they may worry that asking questions of past employers is illegal. This is not true, as long as the information they provide is factual. Obtaining feedback about past work performance is not only legal, it is a crucial part of interviewing, as long as it’s done properly. To check references in a smart and beneficial way, follow these guidelines.

Reference Checks: References provided by candidates are important but generally yield information that is flattering to candidates. It is necessary to speak with informal references not provided by candidates.

References: People who will verify a candidate's career and personal background, skills, character and other factors. Executive recruiters typically need to confirm specific information about candidates with direct references. References provided by candidates are important but generally yield information that is flattering to candidates. Search consultants should pursue informal references from other sources as well.

Referral Bonus: an expense-saving strategy where current employees are offered a monetary bonus for referring a candidate, who then accepts a position and successfully passes their trial period.

Referral Incentive: A referral incentive is a money paid to an employee who refers a candidate. The employee is usually paid after the candidate has been hired and employed for a specified length of time. Some employers provide smaller incentives for the referral itself, regardless of whether the candidate is hired.

Referred candidate: A person referred for consideration by someone familiar with the hiring organization.

Referred Candidates: It is common for clients to recommend candidates to search consultants for on-going search engagements. Some referred candidates may be senior managers working at competitors or internal candidates who already work for the client company. These people become part of the search consultants' pool of candidates and are considered along with others.

Regular Full/Part-Time Employee:  Companies hire regular full-time and part-time employees in order to carry out essential duties to make the organization thrive. Full-time employees generally work eight hours a day, five days a week. Most of the time, full-time workers are eligible for certain benefits, including healthcare coverage and paid vacation days. Part-time employees usually work a minimum of 20 hours a week but no more than 30. They are generally not eligible to receive the same kind of benefits as their full-time counterparts. There are pros and cons to each one, so business owners will need to decide which type is more advantageous to their companies.

Regularization: The process of converting a staff member to full employee status and the employer accepts legal liability of the person as employer-of-record.

Rehabilitation Act of 1973:  The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is a federal law that prohibits business owners who run a federal agency from discriminating against employees or prospective employees on the basis of that individual having a disability. Section 501 states that federal employers must take affirmative action in hiring and promoting qualified employees who have disabilities. Section 503 applies to subcontractors and federal contractors, and it states that they cannot discriminate against qualified candidates who have a disability. Section 504 makes it illegal for federal programs or agencies that receive federal government funding from discriminating against disabled individuals who are perfectly qualified for the job.

Reimbursable Expenses: Executive search firms often incur a lot of out-of-pocket expenses when sourcing, interviewing and attracting senior level candidates on behalf of clients. Executive candidates can be difficult to communicate with, are concerned about confidentiality and may be located away from clients. Therefore, such costs as communications expenses, private meeting rooms, travel and so on are billed to clients. Firms in some countries charge a flat fee of 10-20% for expenses. Same as Expenses.

Relocation Assistance:  Relocation assistance refers to a business benefit where a company offers an employee help in moving to a new city or state in order to work for that company. This can include reimbursement for any moving costs, temporary lodging and travel expenses. Help may also be given to help the employee sell his or her house and get a new house closer to work. In some situations, relocation assistance can include moving someone from one country to a completely different one. In these circumstances, relocation assistance can include helping a worker and his or her spouse obtain visas and helping the employee take classes to learn a new language.

Relocation Package: Employees who are transferred to another country for a multi-year posting, are provided with moving expenses. Expatriate managers relocated to Asia for multinational companies are generally provided with relocation expenses for themselves and families.

Remote Employees:  Remote employees perform regular work duties off company property and are removed from direct contact with managers and/or supervisors. Remote employees frequently work through telecommunication devices and applications including video messaging software. Depending on company practices, remote employees can include senior company members, professionals taking extended leaves, independent contractors or those needed to build company branches in new locations. Management of remote employees can require separate departments or managers depending on the size of the remote working population and their respective responsibilities. Many employers choose to have remote monitoring software or other check-in systems to manage work hours and project progress.

Remote Managers:  Remote managers are in charge of monitoring employees who perform their regular duties off the company’s premises. The level and type of oversight will depend on the nature of the company and the extent of the work performed. Remote managers may use a myriad of software and applications to monitor employee hours and project progress. For work hours, managers may ensure professionals check-in with the appropriate systems and abide by company procedures for workweek hours. Otherwise, these managers may use e-mail, instant messaging, forums, video messaging and other check-in tools to stay in consistent communication with employees working off the company’s premises.

Replacement Guarantee: Executive search firms should agree to replace hired candidates who leave their positions within a certain period. The usual guarantee period is between 6 and 12 months. Some reasonable conditions may apply.

Reprimand:  A reprimand is a written or oral reproach given as part of an employee’s disciplinary following an act of misconduct. In many cases, companies might consider written reprimand’s to be more formal or part of the employee’s company file. On the other hand, oral reproaches may not be so thoroughly noted. Depending on the employer’s policy, a written or oral reproach may be the entirety of the disciplinary action or it can lead to further consequences. For example, it is common for companies to allow for a certain number of written reprimands before taking punitive actions affecting employee’s rank, salary, etc.

Req: Req can be short for “requirement,” “request,” or “requisition.” A job req often refers to “requisition,” or a document that specifies the need for a hire. It usually includes the title, position responsibilities, and budget required.

Requirement: Clients provide information about a position opening specifying the description of the job to be done, title, reporting relationships, skills required, experience and so forth. (same as Job Order)

Requisition (or Req): the job opening, often abbreviated to Req.

Research: In executive search, research relates to the investigative process of sourcing the names individuals who may become qualified candidates of open positions. Research is an on-going and time consuming focus of most executive recruiters.

Resignation Letter: A resignation letter is a letter formally notifying an employer that the employee is leaving his or her position.

Resignation Notice: Resignation notice is the act of notifying an employer that the employee is going to leave his or her position.

Restricted Shares: Long-term incentive plans for senior managers now include grants of company shares over periods of times called vesting. Restricted share plans have become more popular than stock option plans since there is a down-side risk for managers and this is supposed to dampen excessive risk taking behaviour. (Also see vesting)

Restricted stock: A compensation plan that gives the holder of the restricted stock the right to sell stock only after it has vested.

Restrictive covenant: See non-compete clause.

Restructuring:  Restructuring is when an organization changes its internal structure to increase efficiency and cost effectiveness. This act can involve merging two formerly unique entities, separating an entity into multiple parties or incorporating a formerly unincorporated enterprise. Restructuring can occur as the result of one business buying another company or an enterprise increasing in size. For example, a sole proprietorship might grow into a mid-sized business with potential to expand nationally. It would be in the company’s best interest to incorporate and begin observing regulations that apply to a business of its size. Strategic restricting can minimize financial losses, decrease production costs and otherwise impact the company’s bottom line.

Resume: An official document prepared by job-seekers to describe their career history, education and specific qualifications. A resume carries legal standing and consequences for dishonest representation can be severe for executive managers. Resumes are usually 2 to 4 pages in length and can be thought of as sales brochures for people creating them. Resumes are often referred to as CV's (or Curriculum Vitae, Latin for "path of life") but CV's are usually longer giving detailed history of experience, presentations, publications, awards, affiliations, etc. Resumes of 2 to 4 pages are most common in Anglo Saxon countries and especially the United States. In Europe, Asia and Middle-East, resumes tend to include much more information and should properly be called CV's. Academic and other public sector candidates tend to write CV's that are lengthy because of their nature of their work.

Résumé: A document prepared by a job seeker to describe his or her background and skills. Résumés are used for a variety of reasons, but most often to secure new employ- ment. Résumés are similar to CVs, but CVs are more detailed.

Resume Floating: The practice of sending raw resumes to organizations that might have job openings and hoping for a quick placement. The technique is mainly used by inexperienced search consultants trying to break into a new client.

Resume parsing: Resume parsing is the process by which information from candidates’ resumes is
converted into a structured list of information which can be stored and analyzed by

Resume Spam: the act of submitting resumes to a multitude of job postings with little attention to the job description, required qualifications, or general job fit.

Retained Recruiter: A retained recruiter is contracted by a company to fill specific (usually senior-level) positions. The retained recruiting firm is paid a flat fee and expected to deliver the hire. The arrangement is exclusive, meaning that no other firm is asked to participate in the search.

Retained Recruiters: the recruiter will charge an upfront fee to the client to conduct a search. The recruiter will provide a shortlist of qualified candidates for the client to choose from.

Retained Search: The typical method of engaging experienced recruiting professionals to source and assess executives for senior management positions. The retained model is similar to those of highly skilled professionals such as architects, accountants, lawyers and so on. Services are billed monthly (retainers) for the term of the contract -- usually 3 or 4 payments in executive search.

Retained Search Firm: A retained search firm is a type of agency that has an exclusive relationship with an organization or employer. They are responsible for conducting searched for senior-level talent.

Retainer: A fee paid upfront to the recruiter by the client. Executive search retainers are usually paid in monthly installments over an agreed-upon period.

Retaliatory Discharge:  Retaliatory discharge refers to an employer discharging an employee as an act of retaliation for a specific action. This discharge is seen as discriminatory and is banned in Equal Opportunity regulations and other employment laws. Frequently, this type of discharge is seen after an employee submits a complaint or lawsuit against an employer for a discriminatory action like racism, sexism or ageism. Regardless of the validity of the employee’s claims, should an employer dismiss an employee for filing a complaint or suit, the action is considered a retaliatory discharge. However, retaliatory discharge can occur in any situation where the employer seeks to dismiss an employee for an otherwise legal action.

Retention Bonus:  A retention bonus is a form of financial incentive to keep an employee at a company. They are generally given during stressful times at an organization such as an acquisition or merger. They may also be given when it is indicated that an important employee is considering leaving. Business owners may offer a significant bonus in order to keep key players. These bonuses are singular transactions in order for an employer to express his or her appreciation for all that the employee has done. Retention bonuses are typically given as opposed to salary raises because during an acquisition or merger, the company may not have the necessary finances in place to commit to a permanent raise.

Retention Strategy: Employee retention strategies are put in place by employers to increase employee happiness and reduce turnover.

Retraining:  Retraining is a practice employers may require for their workers to make them learn new skills. Although most employees will receive training at the very beginning of their employments, further training may be necessary down the line in order to avoid having a stagnant workforce. For example, companies that have upgraded to newer technologies may require retraining so that everyone learns how to use the new devices as opposed to simply relying on newer or younger employees. Retraining is also highly useful for the workers because they are learning new skills that could make them more viable candidates should they have look for new work elsewhere.

Returnee: People who lived and worked outside their country of origin for a number of years and returned. Returnees may have been posted abroad for an extended period or emigrated and later decided to return to their country or origin. In emerging countries, returnee managers are considered highly valuable because they bring international experience to the home country as well as strong local cultural understanding.

Returnship: A returnship is a short-term employment contract with an experienced professional who has taken an extended leave (usually two or more years) from work in order to attend to family responsibilities.

Reverse Discrimination:  Reverse discrimination refers to the practice of discriminating against people who belong to a majority group during the hiring or promotion process. Numerous diversity initiatives and affirmative action programs are in place in order to level the playing field so that everyone has a fair shot of getting work and being treated fairly. Some people may claim they have been reverse discriminated against if they believe they were passed over for a job even though they were the most qualified. These types of cases are most often brought up by Caucasians or males who feel they were unjustly passed over for employment.

Right-to-Know:  The concept of right-to-know refers to laws in place that require employers to inform all of their workers of any chemicals or other hazardous substances they may come into contact with throughout the course of their employment. The Occupational Safety and Health Act provides the framework for the rules business owners must follow in protecting their employees from any dangerous materials. These laws not only require employers to state what exact substances employees may encounter, but business owners must also say what the possible consequences are of coming into contact with such materials. The Environmental Protection Agency has a list of all such hazardous substances.

Right-to-Sue Letter:  A right-to-sue letter is something that must be obtained by an employee who believes that he or she has been discriminated against in the workplace, and it is necessary to get this letter before pursuing a lawsuit. To get this letter, a person has 180 days to file a claim with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission from the date of the discriminatory incident. Next, the EEOC will review the claim to see if it qualifies and if the workplace did indeed violate the Americans with Disabilities Act, Age Discrimination in Employment Act or Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. If the EEOC does determine that discrimination took place, the employee will receive a right-to-sue letter. A lawsuit must be filed within 90 days of getting the letter.

Right-to-Work:  Right-to-work laws typically occur at the state level and refer to labor-management agreements preventing businesses from requiring workers to join a union as an employment condition. The laws do not guarantee employment for any individual, but rather focus on eliminating a requirement for workers to pay union fees or fees to the entities who may have negotiated payment standards with the business. These laws exist in 26 states including many Midwestern states like Wisconsin and Indiana. Many of these laws guarantee the right to join a union, but are clear to not compel individuals into union membership against their will.

RSUs: Restricted stock or letter stock, is stock of a company that is not completely transferable until certain conditions have been met. Once those conditions have been met the stock becomes unrestricted and transferable to the person holding the award.

Rule of Three: A general rule for successful outcomes in executive search projects is that 3 credible candidates need to be interviewed 3 times by 3 different senior managers at 3 different locations.

Ruse: The practice of using deceptive tactics to acquire intelligence about an organization's employees. Common tactics include pretending to be conducting a study project or writing an article and asking questions about employees' names, titles and responsibilities. Rusing is usually used by inexperienced recruiters and researchers, and is highly unethical.

Executive Search: S

Safe Harbor Regulations:  Safe harbor regulations are regulated through the Department of Labor and specify specific actions or conduct that will not be considered a violation of a given law. For example, if your state has a law that disallows reckless driving, it may have a safe harbor regulation that dictates driving 30 miles per hour or less is conclusively considered to not constitute reckless driving. Within the context of business, the law refers to business and financial actions that might otherwise fall into a legal grey area. Ideally, these laws reduce the uncertainty of certain legal laws and provide a consistent basis for fair rulings.

Salary Compression:  Salary compression occurs when the pay differences between differently qualified professionals are too inconsequential to qualify as equitable. The term may apply when to the pay differentials between supervisors and subordinates, new versus experienced professionals in the same position, salary midpoints in job grades. As an example, salary compression may occur when a manager who just finished training receives comparable pay to a manager who’s been with the company for 10 years. Salary compression is considered especially evident in the educational realm where experienced instructors and new instructors frequently receive comparable salaries despite significant differences in educational credentials and professional experience.

Salary Grade:  A salary grade is a predetermined compensation level for a given position within an organization. The level is expressed through a salary range and typically the levels are set at each individual business entity. For example, the salary grade for mid-level management positions at ABC Inc. may be different from the salary grades of XYZ Inc. When setting salary grade, company executives, hiring managers and other relevant parties will discuss the possible skill levels and credentials of professional likely to be hired for a given position. The salary grades are frequently meant to be competitive while giving the employer room to negotiate.

Salary Range:  Salary range refers to a set minimum and maximum pay rate for a specified compensation level or pay grade. Companies may choose to list this range with their job postings or they may simply use the number internally to guide salary offers and negotiations. Despite terms like ‘manager’ or ‘web developer’ being used in many companies, salary ranges are an internal affair and aren’t typically governed via state or federal regulations. However, many companies do set these ranges with the intention of remaining competitive in the market for top quality employees and professionals. Salary ranges frequently change with varying pay grades or compensation levels.

Sales Recruiter: A sales recruiter specializes in finding and screening candidates for open positions in the sales department.

Screen: a phone call or video chat to determine whether a prospect has the qualifications and interest to interview for the position.

Screening: Candidate screening involves all the activities prior to inviting a candidate in for a formal interview. Screening includes reviewing resumes, conducting phone or video interviews, and may include a test or assessment.

Screening Interview: An initial job interview that is meant to quickly substantiate basic qualifications about a potential candidate. Screening interviews are often conducted over the telephone as a prelude to a more lengthy personal interview.

Screening Matrix: A screening matrix is a tool that provides a summary of candidates and their qualifications. It is a tool that assists in determining which candidates should proceed through the final interview process.

Search committee: A group of people formed for purposes of helping the hiring manager recruit and screen candidates for an executive position.

Search committee chair: The person responsible for managing a proactive, timely, fair, and legal search process to find and hire an executive.

Search committee interview: An interview in which members of the search committee — either as a group or one-on-one — assess the candidate.

Search Process: The procedure of sourcing and screening qualified candidates for open positions. Recruiters typically start with a so-called "long-list" of potential candidates that are systematically winnowed down to a short-list of perhaps 4 to 6 who meet specific requirements of hiring managers. Candidate assessment is time consuming and involves telephone and resume screening, recruiter interviews, informal background checks, client interviews and reference checking.

Search research: A systematic search for information about specific industries, organizations, and executives to dispassionately interpret events. It is an essential component to developing an executive search strategy.

Self-funded (self-insured) plan: This is a plan in which employers, rather than paying for health insurance for an
employee, takes responsibility for their employees’ health and pays for their
healthcare personally if the employee requires it.

Semi-Active Candidates: Semi-active candidates are usually employed but not satisfied with their employers. Some are unstable job-hoppers who change employers frequently while others are concerned about the stability of their positions due to company reasons. Semi-Active candidates are often in the early part of their careers -- young people are naturally more transient as they build their skills and experience.

Senior Level: Senior is a term that refers to employees who have a high level of experience. It can be included in job titles, such as “senior designer,” or refer to employees of high rank, such as “senior executive team.”

Severance Pay: Payments given to employees whose employment has been terminated without cause. The amount varies by country but a rule of thumb in many countries seems to be one month severance pay for each year of service.

Sexual harassment:  Sexual harassment is defined as unwanted advances of the sexual nature, requests for sexual favors and other forms of physical and verbal sexual conduct. When this brand of harassment occurs in the workplace, it often directly or indirectly affects an employee’s ability to work. Sexual harassment also tends to create a work environment that’s hostile, intimidating or offensive. In addition to hostile work environment, the second type of recognized sexual harassment is “quid pro quo. This type of harassment takes place when a supervisor forces an employee or job candidate to accept sexual harassment to keep his or her job or get a job.

Sexual orientation:  Sexual orientation is the term for an individual’s main romantic, emotional, physical and sometimes spiritual bond to members of the same and/or opposite sex. Some of the most well-known types of sexual orientation include homosexual (gay or lesbian), heterosexual (straight) and bisexual. If a person is not open with his or her sexual orientation, that individual is what’s known as “closeted. It’s important to note the difference between gender and sex when touching on sexual orientation. Sex refers to a person’s biology and sex organs while gender refers to cultural or societal characteristics deemed either masculine or feminine. Simply because a man displays “feminine gender qualities does not mean he is gay, and the same applies to women who display “masculine qualities.

Shadowing: A process of working closely with a more experienced person to learn the skills required for a position before taking on the role at a later time. Often used in emerging countries when expatriate managers are hired to transfer skills to local managers.

Shareholder:  A corporation or individual who retains ownership of at least a single company share is considered a shareholder. Such individuals and corporations stand to make a profit whenever the company in which they hold stock does well, which also means they stand to lose money should the company not fare well. While shareholders are essentially owners of a company, they are not held responsible for the company’s financial obligations, such as debts. What’s more is shareholders have no say in the day-to-day operations of the company in which they own stock, but they do have a vote in corporate matters. Shareholders might also be referred to as stockholders.

Shootout: Process of choosing a search firm where sales representatives from each short-listed firm are asked to make presentations to a group of decision makers and a final selection is made. Shootouts are used in a few very fast paced, highly competitive environments in the world -- almost all in so-called Anglo Saxon countries. In the rest of the world (and especially Asia), long-term professional relationships are key to acquiring business to doing business together and the shootout model is rarely used.

Short list: The list of candidates created in the final stages of a search engagement, after candidates have been prescreened, interviewed, and vetted before being presented to the client. See also long list.

Shortlist: During the search process, a candidate long-list is gradually reduced to a much smaller number of candidates in a time-consuming procedure. The short-list is the group of candidates who survive extensive screening, interviewing and background confirmation, and are to be presented to the client.

Short-listing candidates: This refers to the number of candidates from your long-list who are recommended to the hiring manager. The recruiter typically makes a recommendation on who to short-list.

Short-term disability:  Short-term disability is a common benefit that gives employees a temporary source of income whenever they become injured or ill. Because the disability benefit is a short-term one, the employee is expected to return to work after a specific amount of time has passed. While short-term disability sounds much like workers compensation, the major difference between the two is short-term disability covers illnesses and injuries that don’t occur on the clock. For instance, an employee can use her or his short-term disability benefit for an accident that takes place before or after work. Serious injuries and illnesses that require more recuperating time might call for long-term disability, if the benefit is available.

Sick leave:  Whenever employees are given paid time off due to an injury or illness, it’s known as sick leave. As of 2015, there are only three U.S. states and four cities that have laws mandating paid sick leave. That being said, a majority of U.S. legislatures have pending laws governing guaranteed paid sick leave. Some companies offer sick leave as part of their workplace policy while others offer it as part of either the employee contract or a collective bargaining agreement. Depending on the policy, an employee may be able to use her or his sick leave to stay home to take care of an injured or ill family member, for a doctor appointment or for safety or health requirements connected to sexual assault or domestic violence.

Sign On Bonus: money paid upfront to a new employee by a company as an incentive to join that company.

Signing Bonus: Payments given to newly hired executive managers to ensure they join the new employer. Signing bonuses are most commonly used to compensate executives for earnings they would lose by leaving their current employer. A typical example is an annual bonus that may not be paid for months in the future. Managers may hesitate to leave employers because they will lose rightfully earned compensation. In order to secure the hire, the new employer commits to pay the amount owed as a signing bonus on starting work or after an agreed period. Sometimes signing bonuses are used to lure high value candidates and are encumbered with retention requirements. (Same as Hiring Bonus)

SIMPLE Plan:  A saving incentive match plan for employees, also known as a SIMPLE plan, is a basic retirement plan between employees and their employers. In order for employers to qualify for SIMPLE plans, they have to successfully meet the employee limit, and they should not have an alternate qualifying plan, unless if that plan is intended for collective bargaining employees. Employees are able to participate in the retirement plan as long as they make a specific salary during a specific time frame, such as $5,000 during any three years before the current calendar year. Employers can set up their SIMPLE plans with the IRS.

Situational Interview: Situational interview questions probe the candidate on how they would respond to a hypothetical scenario in the future.

Situational interviewing: An interview technique in which the interviewer uses the job description to make a list of required skills and responsibilities and then poses questions about hypothetical situations that pertain to those skills and responsibilities. Candidates are assessed by how they would solve problems and exploit opportunities. Questions such as “How would you deal with . . . ?,” and “What would you do if . . . ?” are situational interview questions. Most hiring managers consider them very useful for executive candidates.

Skill:  A skill is the ability to carry out a physical or mental activity that adds to the overall performance of a specific job task. Employers often look for employees and applicants who possess certain skills in order that they can create productive and efficient workplaces. While there are several different skills needed in a professional environment, a majority of them are rooted in how employees communicate and work with each other and how all necessary planning and research are handled in the workplace. Examples of some of the most essential skills needed in the contemporary workplace include planning, multitasking, leadership, creativity, and research.

Skill gap:  A skill gap is defined as a lack of fundamental reading, writing, mathematical or communication skills employers require for a work environment that’s efficient and operates smoothly. This gap makes it difficult for employers to fill positions. A skills gap isn’t always attributed by a lack of education, mainly because there are situations where an employee or job candidate can be overeducated. Besides education, a skills gap might also be attributed by persistent unemployment. Some of the skills needed to work contemporary technologies can be just as hard to measure as they are to manage, which can make the definition of a skill gap to be even more convoluted.

Skill set: An individual’s skill set comprises of all their skills, abilities, qualifications and work

Skill-based pay:  Skill-based pay is a salary system that determines an employee’s pay based on his or her knowledge, experience, education or specialized training. Depending on the company, the employee might also receive a higher salary for earning formal certification in his or her industry. What differentiates skill-based pay from standard job-based pay systems is that employees under a job-based pay system are paid for performing their jobs even if they aren’t proficient at those jobs. While this particular pay system is one of the most widely used, it can be somewhat confusing, mainly because there are several different types of skill-based pay, such as depth-oriented plans and breadth-oriented plans.

Skills gap: A skills gap refers to the gap between the skills and qualifications required for a
position and the skills and qualifications a candidate actually has.

Skills inventory:  A skill inventory is a list of an individual’s professional competencies or skills. Such an inventory might also include education and professional experience. An employer might request a skills inventory from a current employee or potential employee to gauge how well that individual is likely able to meet company goals. What’s more is a company can use skills inventories to improve strategic planning efforts. Besides recruiting and training, skills inventories can also be used for succession planning. Should a key employee leave a company, there needs to be an individual or several individuals who are able to fill the talent gap.

Skills training:  Skills training is designed to provide employees with the targeted training they need to gain the knowledge and abilities necessary to fulfill the specific requirements of their job positions. Skills training can also be used to re-educate and retrain employees whenever new technology, processes or systems debut. In addition to skills training for employees, there are also special training programs for new graduates who are just getting started in the workplace. Such training can be especially beneficial for jobs that require applicants to have experience. Additional specialized training programs include those for disabled veterans, workers’ compensation clients and vocational rehabilitation.

Social media background screening: This is a type of screening where a candidate’s social media platforms are viewed by
the employer to look for problems, or qualities which might make them an unsuitable
candidate for a position.

Social Recruiting: Social recruiting entails using social networks to find and attract candidates. Recruiters may engage in such activities as posting job ads and employer brand content on social networks, and engaging in groups on social websites.

Social Recruitment (Social Hiring or Social Media Recruiting): attracting candidates by using social platforms for advertising and to find information on candidates.

Social Security:  Social Security was created under the Social Security Act as a federal program for disability, retirement and additional benefits. Employees fund their Social Security benefits through special payroll taxes called Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax. Those who are self-employed make their contributions through the Self Employed Contributions Act Tax. In addition to providing benefits directly to employees, Social Security is also intended for the families of individuals who are retired, disabled or deceased. While it might sound like a pension plan, Social Security is actually more of a “pay-as-you- plan whereas a pension plan is pre-funded, meaning the money is accumulated in advanced before being paid out.

Social Security card:  A Social Security card is provided by the Social Security Administration and shows the holder’s full legal name and Social Security number. There are three different types of Social Security card

Soft skills:  Soft skills are specific skills needed for jobs in which the position is defined according to certain results, but the overall process required to achieve those results is varied. Examples of some of the more common and in-demand soft skills include communication, teamwork/collaboration, critical observation, problem solving and adaptability. Such skills should not only be learned, but cultivated as well. Doing so can prove beneficial when it comes to getting a job and earning a promotion. Ways to learn and develop soft skills include taking courses, finding industry mentors and working with nonprofit organizations, all of which can also look good on a resume.

Source: A credible and knowledgeable person who may recommend candidates for specific job openings.

Sourcing: The act of proactively searching for qualified job candidates for a current or future open position. This stands in contrast to the reactive reviewing of résumés or applications submitted to a company. The point of sourcing is to collect data about qualified candidates, such as names, titles, and job responsibilities. Typically performed by an HR professional, sourcing is used to identify both active and passive job seekers. Sourcing is typically done via phone or Internet.

SOW: See statement of work.

Special disabled veteran:  A special disabled veteran is an individual who is legally approved for financial compensation in accordance with laws provided by the Veterans Administration for disabilities that are rated at at least 30 percent. In regards to a veteran who is rated between 10 and 20 percent disability, he or she has to have a significant unemployment handicap under 38 USC 3106. The designation also applies to individuals who have a release or discharge from active duty for a disability related to his or her military service. Additional examples of protected veterans include Vietnam Era veterans, disabled veterans, recently separated veterans and Armed Forces Service Medal veterans.

Specialist Recruiters: In large cities of most so-called developed countries, search consultants specialize their practice in certain industries or functions (for example: banking, manufacturing, consumer goods, accounting, HR, IT). Most large search firms employ numbers of recruiters and specialization is necessary. Small boutique firms in large markets also typically specialize in narrow services. Outside of the world's major commercial centres, generalist search consultants are most common. The simple reason behind this is that over-specialization in smaller search markets can lead to impoverishment of search consultants. In the emerging countries of Asia, most search consultants are generalists although they will commonly declare themselves to have certain "areas of focus."

Sponsored job posting: Companies use sponsored job posting to ensure that their job advertisement appears
at the top of a job board or job search engine in exchange for paying a premium to
these services.

Staff: Staff is another word for employees. In a job title, staff can refer to an experienced or senior level employee. Double check to find out the hierarchy within your organization.

Staff Augmentation: Term for using temporary workers to increase the number of people working on a specific project for a defined period of time.

Staff leasing:  Staff leasing  Staff leasing covers the practice of hiring an employee on a temporary basis for an indefinite period of time without the use of a temporary staffing agency. Staff leasing often allows an organization to be flexible about the length of contract terms for various job positions. This practice is used across multiple industries and organization sizes. State laws provide different definitions and compensation depending on location, but many cover situations like worker absences, skilled temporary labor, seasonal workload and student workers. Staffing metrics are useful in determining how many positions to lease. Related terms include worker leasing and staffing company.

Staffing:  Staffing is the function of employee recruitment, screening and selection performed within an organization or business to fill job openings. Other areas of employment which may be handled by a staffing department are orientation, training, retention and termination. This function is sometimes handled outside of an organization by using contractors at various levels of the staffing process. Small organizations may handle staffing on a case-by-case basis, while larger organizations may go through multiple staffing cycles during a single year. Organizations of any size may use staffing to acquire temporary or permanent employees. Some related terms and departments include human resources, personnel management and hiring.

Staffing Agency: A staffing agency fills positions for various companies. Workers are legally employed by the staffing agency, who pays them hourly and deducts taxes. Positions can be temporary, temp-to-perm (the worker will be hired on by the client company after a specified period if performance is satisfactory), or direct hire (the worker will be hired by the company without an hourly trial period). The staffing agency marks up the hourly rate paid to the worker or charges a fee for placements. Staffing agencies can specialize in various position types, such as administrative or IT.

Staffing Firm: Staffing firms focus on providing temporary help or contract workers to clients for fixed periods. Recruiting firms, on the other hand, source, assess and refer qualified candidates to be hired as employees by client organizations.

Staffing metrics:  Staffing metrics are any of the methods to determine and analyze quantitative values associated with staffing. The most common staffing metric is costs associated with recruitment and hiring, but turnaround and retention are two other frequently used metrics. An organization may also track the passage of time between when a job position becomes advertised and is finally filled. Other staffing metrics include recruiter workload, market activity and number of unfilled positions. These metrics often help an organization determine when to hire more workers and if their staffing methods have been successful. Terms relating to staffing metrics include hiring metrics and staffing costs.

Stakeholder:  A stakeholder is any person with a vested interest in the successful outcome or completion of a particular project. Stakeholders and stakeholder groups come in a variety of forms and may or may not be actively involved in the project at stake. Within the context of labor and employment, certain offered benefits may make a new employee a stakeholder in the company. Alternately, an employee may feel an impact from stakeholders outside the organization in the form of policy decisions and job security. Even when stocks are not involved, a stakeholder may at times be referred to as a shareholder.

Statement of work (SOW): A formal agreement that captures the work products and services to be completed. These include (but are not limited to) work activities and deliverables to be supplied under a contract or as part of a project timeline.

Statute of limitation:  A statute of limitation is a legally-defined deadline for the filing of a lawsuit within a certain time period after an event, where that event is the cause of said claim. The purpose of such laws is to protect a defendant who may simply have lost vital evidence necessary to refute or disprove the claim. The most common application of this law in the realm of human resources is for employee discrimination. Depending on the exact claim, the statute of limitations may be as short as 90 days or as long as four years. Other employee claims include wrongful termination and hostile work environment.

Stay interview: This is a type of interview which is conducted with current employees, to gage their
views on the company, what makes them want to keep working for the company, as
well as whether anything could improve their working experience.

Stick rate: The percentage of recruited and placed candidates who remain in their positions through the guarantee period.

Stock option: An agreement between two parties — in this case, the company and the new hire — that gives the new hire the right (but not the obligation) to purchase stock in the company at an agreed-upon (and perhaps discounted) price within a specific period of time.

Stock Options: A type of financial incentive given to key employees to reward them for the performance of their company's share price. Stock options give employees the opportunity to acquire company shares at a fixed price. If share price increases above that price, employees can make a profit when stock options are exercised. For example, if employees are given stock options for 100 shares at $10 exercisable in 1 year and the price goes to $15 at the end of the year, the employee can earn a profit of $500 ($15 - $10 times 100 shares). Stock options have gotten a bad reputation as a cause of risky management behaviour and are giving way to restricted shares as a long-term incentive.

Strategic Human Resource Management: Strategic human resource management is a method of workforce management which
focuses on retaining and rewarding current employees, as well as on attracting
outside talent to the workforce.

Strategic Planning: The process of analyzing an organization’s outlook, and creating a hiring strategy centered around future plans and aspirations.

Stress Interviewing: Interviewers deliberately place candidates in situations of stress to see how they react. They may keep candidates waiting in the interview room, ask argumentative questions and behave in an aggressive manner. Stress interview tactics are used in industries and locations that are highly competitive and confrontational in their culture. In Asia where relationship building skills are highly valued, stress interviewing is infrequently used.

String: A combination of keywords and boolean operators used in a search.

Structured Interview Process: A structured interview process aims to assess candidates objectively by having interviewers ask the same set of questions to each candidate, in the same order, and provide ratings on key measures.

Succession plan: A plan to address the selection, development, evaluation, and compensation of the executive team. The creation of the succession plan requires major input from the board of directors.

Succession planning: Succession planning is a strategy for passing on leadership roles—often the ownership of a company—to an employee or group of employees. Also known as "replacement planning," it ensures that businesses continue to run smoothly after a company's most important people move on to new opportunities, retire, or pass away.06.12.2020

Summary Plan Description: A document explaining an employer’s benefit or contribution plan, including eligibility requirements, contribution formulas, benefit calculations, distribution options, participation, coverage and employee rights.

Supplemental Staffing: Temporary talent a company may need to supplement the workforce for special projects or worker absences. This is often times filled by interim talent.

Suspect: A person identified in a preliminary manner as a possible candidate to fill a search assignment but who may or may not be determined as qualified or interested until more information is found.

Executive Search: T

Talent: Individuals who have the necessary skills to be considered for a specified position within an organization.

Talent Acquisition: Talent acquisition takes a strategic approach to recruiting in order to meet evolving business needs. The talent acquisition department works with business leaders to strategize and execute optimal processes for sourcing, interviewing, and onboarding.

Talent Acquisition Specialist or Partner: Talent acquisition takes a strategic approach to recruiting in order to meet evolving business needs. In addition to the activities of recruiting, talent acquisition specialists may work with business leaders to strategize and execute optimal processes for sourcing, interviewing, and onboarding.

Talent Analytics: Talent analytics helps companies and talent acquisition professionals use data wisely to improve their recruiting strategies. Talent analytics intelligence and insight can lead to more accurate hiring projections, investment in more profitable recruitment channels, and putting the right employees in the right jobs.

Talent community: A talent community is a community that a company builds so that they can quickly fill
positions with suitable candidates if it becomes necessary. The community is usually
built from previous applicants who did not get the positions, but still impressed the
hiring manager

Talent intelligence: Talent intelligence refers to the collection and analysis of data about the talent within
their company and also about the talent in rival companies.

Talent management: This is the management of everything related to the workforce, which includes the hiring
process, ensuring employees are retained, and that the individuals within the
workforce are developed and improved as employees, throughout the course of their

Talent Management Software: Talent management software is used to recruit, screen, hire, track, and manage job applicants.

Talent mapping: The process of building an intelligence chart for a given organization or industry. Talent mapping involves identifying the names, titles, responsibilities, and accomplishments of people in companies in the targeted industry who may be qualified for a position, either now or in the future. See also candidate universe.

Talent network: Companies can offer individuals the option to join their talent pool via a talent network
if they are not ready to apply for positions within the company immediately, they can
be called upon for future positions.

Talent pipeline: A company’s talent pipeline is a group of individuals made up of employees who are
eligible for promotion and external candidates within the company’s talent pool who
meet the requirements of the position and are available to fill that position.

Talent pool: This is a group of people associated with a particular company who the company
considers to be potential future candidates.

Talent relationship management: This is the process of creating and maintaining relationships with talent and potential

Talent-pooling: This refers to market and talent mapping. A talent sourcer is typically responsible for talent pooling. This information is then offered to the recruiter or hiring manager.

When building a talent pool, the sourcer does not yet contact candidates. The list of possible candidates may be given to the onsite team, or another recruiter, for candidate screening.

Target Company: any company whose talent is desirable for a number of reasons, e.g. working on a competing product, holding desirable degrees, participating in a similar culture, etc.

Tech Recruiter: A tech recruiter specializes in finding and screening candidates for technical roles. This role requires knowledge of highly specialized technical terms and the ability to screen candidates.

Technical Interview: Technical interview questions seek to uncover the candidate’s knowledge of specific technical skills required for a job. Candidates may be asked to talk through how they would solve a problem or be asked to solve problems on a whiteboard or computer.

Temp: a temporary employee.

Temp Recruiter: Temp recruiters manage and oversee the staffing of temporary workers at sites such as factories, warehouses, or other locations that require large numbers of temporary staff.

Temporary (Temp) Recruiter: Temp recruiters usually work for a staffing agency to find candidates to fill short-term positions for companies.

Temporary staffing: Temporary staffing agencies provide employees for short-term assignments. Temporary employees are typically included on the staffing organization’s payroll.

This option may be suitable when a new project arises. Or, it may be worth considering if you require a certain skill set for a designated period of time (such as the holiday season), and the need doesn’t justify a new full-time position.

Temp-to-Hire Staffing: The process of hiring a temporary staff member and transferring them to regular employee status. The company becomes the employer-of-record and access legal employment responsibility of the person. The process is most used for lower level staff but is sometimes used for when interim executives are highly effective and wish to remain with an employer.

Termination: Dismissal of an employee can take different forms and employment laws in most countries dictate its manner. Termination with cause is usually the result of a significant violation such as dishonest conduct, deliberate disobedience, serious neglect of duties, etc.). In such cases, the terminated employee is not entitled to separation pay or notice. Termination without just cause means the employee is being terminated for reasons not having to do with misconduct and severance pay is usually defined by law.

Test Candidates: When position requirements might be unclear, executive recruiters will sometimes present a range of candidates to hiring managers to get their reaction to the work being done and guidance on where to target.

Time to fill: This is the amount of time between when the initial job requisition was received and
when the chosen candidate accepted the job offer.

Time to hire: The time to hire is the measure of time it takes for a company to choose and hire a

Time-to-Hire: A measure of the time it takes to fill a vacancy at an organization. It is typically measured from the moment the job request is submitted to the time the new employee is officially hired.

Timing: The length of the search engagement is sometimes specified in advance by the search firm. Typical executive searches require 2 to 4 months with roughly 1-2 months for candidate sourcing and appraisal by the search firm and 1-2 months of interviews and assessment by client decision-makers. Notice periods are usually longer for senior executives -- 30 days is often the minimum in Asia.

TN Visa: a special non-immigrant classification in the United States that offers expedited work authorization to a citizen of Canada or a national of Mexico.

Total Compensation: Executive compensation can include an assortment of cash and non-cash, guaranteed and variable components. Base salary may comprise only 50-60% of total income. Other compensation may include the following: annual bonus, long-term incentive plan, profit sharing, restricted share plan (or stock options or phantom shares), signing bonus, executive health insurance, pension plan, life and disability insurance. In Asia, senior executives and especially expatriates can also be provided with an automobile (plus fuel and driver), private school fees for children, air-flight to home country for entire family, club memberships, housing allowance, housing loans and hard-ship bonus.

Total remuneration: This is the total of everything the company provides to an employee over the course
of a year, including an employee’s basic salary, financial benefits such as incentive
pay and bonuses and non-monetary benefits such as gym memberships.

Training needs analysis: This is the analysis of employee performance to observe whether employees require
training or further development.

Transferable skills: Transferable skills are skills which can be useful for many different types of career, or
for different aspects of an individual’s life.

Turndown: post-interview when a recruiter tells the candidate they didn’t receive the job.

Turnover: A measure of the employees lost and gained over a given time period.

Turnover costs: The turnover cost is the sum it costs a company to replace an employee.

Turnover rate: This is the percentage of employees that leave a company over the course of a year.

Two Weeks’ Notice: The standard time given prior to resigning from a job.

Types of Positions: Understanding the terminology that refers to the various types of positions within an organization will help you identify candidates whose experience match the open roles you need to fill.

Executive Search: U

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS):  The U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) was established on March 1, 2003 in order to administer immigration and naturalization functions and services. It was originally part of the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) that later transition into the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). These services are important to employers due to the fact that they can only hire workers who are legally authorized to work in the United States. If an employer knowingly hires an unauthorized worker, he or she may be subject to disciplinary action from this particular organization. During the interview process, employers will be able to check a candidate’s employment eligibility status by using a government maintained central database of names. Hiring an unauthorized employee can be an unsafe act if that employee’s eligibility has been denied due to criminal acts.

Unbundling: Some service providers offer components of full recruiting services individually. Examples are firms that provide name sourcing (often called research) and assessment services.

Unethical Research: Practices that involve deceptive techniques such as misrepresenting the caller or the purpose of the call are unethical and unprofessional, and not acceptable by most experienced professional recruiters. (Similar to Rusing)

Union:  A union is a formal organization that intervenes on behalf of workers in disputes involving working conditions, wages, benefits, job security, and conditions of employment. These disputes typically occur between the workers of a specific company and the company’s management. In order to be recognized as an official union, an organization must be certified by the National Labor Relations Board. Unions are formed within a variety of industries, but they all serve similar purposes. Despite their power, many states have outlawed the formation of unions. There are also many companies and organizations that encourage or forbid employees from joining a union. Some unions may require employees at a certain company to join a union shop.

Union Shop:  A union shop is a type of union security that requires workers to join a union upon hire or after a compulsory-unionism contract is signed. If the worker wishes to remain employed, he or she must remain part of the union. Compulsory union membership is fairly common in certain industries, and it guarantees that all workers will be on the same side if a dispute between workers or managers occurs. It also prevents the union from being divided by outside forces such as government agencies, anti-union groups, or the company itself. All unions do not have this type of organization and there are some unions that do not require compulsory membership.

Unlawful Employment Practice:  An unlawful employment practice is a procedure, policy, or behavior that intends to discriminate against or harass a specific employee or group of employees. These practices do not serve any business-related purposes, and are not necessary in order for the employee to perform the job. Unlawful employment practices are often employed against workers due to factors such as race, ethnicity, religious beliefs, disability, or sexual orientation. If an employer engages in such unfair practices, he or she may be subject to legal action or termination. If an entire company or business structure engages in unlawful practices, it may be subject to legal action, fines, and citations. An unlawful employment practice will usually be classified as a type unwelcome conduct.

Unretirement:  Unretirement is the practice of hiring employees who were previously retired. The vast majority of these employees will be past the retirement age and may be seeking employment for various reasons. Some formerly retired workers may simply be looking for a new career, while others seek employment due to financial hardship. Regardless of the reason, the skills and qualifications of these formerly retired employees are oftentimes sought out by particular companies and industries. Refusing to hire a worker due to his or her age is considered to be an unlawful employment practice. Any employer who engages in age discrimination will be subject to legal action.

Unsafe Acts:  Unsafe acts are performed any time an employee fails to abide by safety rules and protocols. These actions include fighting, horseplay, or performing a job without the necessary safety equipment. Unsafe acts are extremely dangerous, especially in industries that require workers to handle heavy equipment or hazardous materials on a regular basis. In certain cases, these acts can even result in permanent injury or death. Employees who engage in unsafe acts may be subject to formal disciplinary action or termination, due to the risk involved. Prior to employment, companies usually brief new employees about company policies and procedures involving safety. If a company does not inform employees about safety rules, it could be found guilty of making employees work in unsafe conditions.

Unsafe Conditions:  Unsafe conditions are hazards that have the potential to cause injury or death to an employee. Some of these hazards include erroneous safety procedures, malfunctioning equipment or tools, or failure to utilize necessary safety equipment such as goggles and masks. Unsafe conditions can be found in a variety of workplaces, but they pose a special hazard to workers in industrial, manufacturing, or manual labor positions. At the time of hire, companies should provide workers with the information and training they need in order to avoid unsafe conditions. If a single employee engages in unsafe acts, other employees who work in the same environment will be exposed to unsafe conditions.

Unskilled Worker:  An unskilled worker is an employee who does not use reasoning or intellectual abilities in their line of work. These workers are typically found in positions that involve manual labor such as packager, assembler, or apprentice, or farm worker. Unskilled jobs usually do not require formal education and can be performed by the majority of individuals. Due to the fact that their jobs do not require high levels of education or training, unskilled workers tend to earn lower than average salaries when compared to other workers. Jobs performed by unskilled workers are sometimes labeled “blue collar” jobs by mainstream society. Unskilled workers often work in environments where they are exposed to unsafe conditions on a regular basis.

Unstructured Interview: An unstructured interview is one in which the questions are not predetermined and different candidates may be asked different questions. They tend to be informal, resembling a conversation more than standard question-and-answer process.

Unwelcome Behavior/Conduct:  Unwelcome behavior or conduct is any behavior by subordinates, peers, or superiors that is deemed offensive or unwelcome by an employee. This behavior can include inappropriate remarks or jokes, discriminatory behavior, or unwanted romantic advances and gestures. Unwelcome behavior lowers productivity in the workplace and is considered illegal in the majority of jurisdictions. It is also detrimental to the physical, emotional, and psychological health of employees. If workers or managers engage in unwelcome conduct towards an employee, the guilty party will sometimes be subject to legal action or termination. If an employee is on the receiving end of this particular unlawful employment practice, he or she should alert the human resources department immediately

Warm Call: - The process of telephoning potential customers with whom you already have some level of relationship, e.g. you have connected to them on LinkedIn.

Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC): The cost of capital (discount rate) determined by the weighted average, at market value, of the cost of all financing sources in the business enterprise’s capital structure.

Weighted Average Discretionary Earnings (DE): Valuation method used to determine an average cash flow, taking into account that sales and profits may vary from year to year.

White knight: A term used in a hostile takeover context, when a company, which can not prevent a takeover looks for a friendly rescuer who might outbid the Black Knight and acquire the company on amicable terms.

White Knight Defense: A friendly takeover bidder that outbids the Black Knight.

White squire: Not quite a white knight, but one who buys less than a controlling interest in the company, but enough shares to prevent a hostile takeover.

White Squire Defense: An ally of the target company that does not buy enough shares to gain a controlling interest, but enough to prevent the hostile takeover acquirer from gaining a controlling interest.

Working Capital: The excess of the value of the current assets over the value of the current liabilities. This value will be negative if current liabilities exceed current assets.


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Vacancy: A vacancy is a position within a company which is vacant and which requires a new
employee to fill the position.

Vacation Buy-Back plan:  A vacation buy-back plan is a program that allows an employee to sell his or her unused vacation time back to the employer. This is a common practice in many organizations, and it allows employees to profit from unused vacation days. It also benefits the company since the employee will be able to provide more of his or her services, which will increase revenue and production in the long-run. As time progresses, employees have the opportunity to accumulate a large number of vacation days, and for many employees, it is simply impossible to utilize all of these days. Vacation buy-back plans solves this problem by facilitating a mutually beneficial exchange between workers and employers. During wage and salary administration procedures, this time exchange will be factored into paychecks.

Vesting: Most long-term incentive plans involving shares (stock options, restricted share, etc) are given in specified dates to encourage retention of key employees. Vesting schedules typically specify that employees can exercise a portion of their share plans each year over a 3 to 5 year period.

Veteran’s Preferences: Veteran’s preference laws provide qualified veterans of the US Armed Forces preference under certain situations when applying for employment.

Virtual HR:  Virtual HR  Virtual HR is a utilization of technology and software systems to provide employees with self-service options and assist the human resource department with automation of everyday tasks. A properly leveraged virtual design boasts two beneficial advantages to employees and HR professionals alike. Primarily, it gives employees the ability to input certain information regarding their personal file. Employees can also access data related to trainings, appraisals, and performance scores. Secondarily, HR professionals can automate and delegate time-consuming tasks in regards to administrative duties, company newsletters, payroll inquiries, and general information sharing. With the use of an effective virtual HR system, the duties of human resource management are more efficient, and employees will enjoy the freedom of accessing important HR information in a hassle-free and self-efficient manner.

Virtual mentoring:  Virtual mentoring   Virtual mentoring is when a designated mentor and his mentee communicate from a distance via the means of technological communication. Resources like email, electronic conferencing, and specialized software are used to connect both parties in virtual meetings where activities like networking, goal-setting, career planning, general discussion, and the development of leadership qualities and professional experience take place. Virtual mentoring is beneficial for companies who outsource their work, employ expatriates, or provide employees with work-from-home options. Small businesses, who may be unable to afford or arrange mentor travel, can also benefit from the use of this option. With the use of reliable technology, mentors and mentees are still able connect regardless of the geographical distance between them.

Virtual office/workplace:  Virtual office/workplace  A virtual office/workplace describes the work location for employees who have unique circumstances and don’t operate exclusively from an office. Individuals such as sales reps, expatriates, contract workers, and freelance workers are able to utilize the technology of cellphones and computer software to communicate with the home office. Activities including appointment setting, customer data tracking, logistics planning, and general information sharing can still be efficiently completed, and related communications can be effectively transmitted to the appropriate parties. A virtual office/workplace allows employees the freedom to do their job that takes them away from the home office, without losing the important tools, resources, and communications needed to do their job the right way.

Vision statement:  Vision statement   A vision statement is a company’s idea of what they anticipate their organization achieving in a period of ten years. This description is best articulated when time is taken to clearly define goals and the designated pathways to achieving those goals in a timely manner. A company’s ability to turn their vision into reality is best accomplished when employees are aware and committed to the organization’s goals, expectations, and methods for achieving specific outputs. While a vision statement generally looks ten years into the future, different descriptions can be written for longer or shorter periods of time depending on a company’s needs, requirements, and goals.

Voluntary Benefits: Voluntary benefits are paid for by the employee through payroll deductions. A few examples include life insurance, dental, vision, disability, auto, and homeowners insurance.

Voluntary leave/layoff:  Voluntary leave/layoff  Voluntary leave/layoff occurs when an employee voluntarily takes a hiatus from work with no pay during departure time. For companies experiencing downsizing, financial limitations, or general restructuring, voluntary leave is a beneficial alternative to laying off employees. Together with individuals who have agreed to participate, employers can create a fair timeline detailing the length, timing, and specifications of an employee’s temporary dismissal. For companies who are worried about losing highly skilled and uniquely qualified individuals from their organization, a voluntary layoff could be a promising arrangement to maintain employment until a more permanent option can be offered. Additionally, it can help cut the costs related to payment of unemployment benefits.

Voluntary Reduction in Hours:  A voluntary reduction in hours occurs when an employee is allowed to voluntarily restrict their working hours and pay for a specified period of time. This is sometimes used as an alternative to layoff since it allows the company to save money and allows the worker to remain employed. The voluntary reduction in hours may also cause an employee to lose his or her benefits such as health insurance, dental insurance, and stock options. A major reduction in hours is usually not favored by the majority of employees, but if he or she is under the threat of termination, the option becomes more appealing. A voluntary reduction of hours can be informal or formal, depending on the company, and employers should be sure that it is not done as an unfair employment practice.

Volunteerism:  Volunteerism is a form of organizational support that allows employees to pursue volunteer opportunities while remaining on the payroll. Volunteering and community involvement is a major aspect of many corporations due to the fact that it allows the company to boost their popularity and improve their relationship with local communities. If an employee finds a charity or community service that resonates with him or her, the company may agree to sponsor that particular employee. This involves providing pay to the employee, as well as donating financial resources to the charity or service. Some companies who are heavily involved in the community require their employees to engage in volunteerism in order to fulfill the company vision. Compensation arising from volunteerism is usually handled through wage and salary administration practices.

V-time: Otherwise known as voluntary reduced worktime, this is an agreement in which an
employee undergoes a voluntary reduction of the hours they work, accompanied by a
proportional reduction in salary and benefits.

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Wage and Salary Survey:  A wage and salary survey is used to compile market pay data for a plethora of jobs on either a local or nationwide basis. This survey is usually performed in order to assess the effectiveness of a company’s current pay structure and practices. Surveys are used to plan future methods of compensation, and they can be instrumental in exposing gaps and waste stemming from current policies and procedures. A comprehensive survey may also provide companies with wage data from other companies – this will allow them to assess their own compensatory policies and adjust them accordingly. Survey data is compiled using various data and records from human resource departments. Information will usually be displayed on a wage curve.

Wage Curve:  A wage curve displays the current pay rates for various jobs within a pay grade in relation to their company ranking. This is usually done during the job evaluation process as a way to ensure that employees receive fair compensation for their skill and education level. Wage curves sometimes depict a company’s current salary rate in contrast to the salary rate of other companies in the same industry. When a curve is used for this purpose, it allows the company to see what competitors are paying their workers. The use of a wage curve is an important element of the wage and salary survey process, and it is usually created using human resource data, and at times, employee-reported data.

Wage Differential:  A wage differential refers to the difference in wages between people with similar skills within differing localities or industries. It can also refer to the difference in wages between employees who have dissimilar skills within the same industry. It is generally referenced when discussing the given risk of a certain job. For example, if a certain line of work requires someone to work around hazardous chemicals, then that job may be due a higher wage when compared to other jobs in that industry that do not necessitate coming into contact with dangerous chemicals. There are also geographical wage differentials where people with the same job may be paid different amounts based on where exactly they live and the attractiveness of the area.

Wage Drift: the difference between the negotiated salary and the one that is actually paid to an employee by the end of a certain work period. Wage Drift is most common in industries with unpredictable demand and seasonal hikes.

Wage Gap:  The wage gap refers to the discrepancy in the wages women and men earn for doing the same work. The Equal Pay Act was established in 1963, and this law made it illegal for employers to pay different wages to women and men who do the same work or hold the same position within a company. In general, Caucasian women earn about 78 cents for every dollar a white male makes. However, there are different discrepancies based on race. African-American and Hispanic women earn even less. The wage gap is determined by dividing the median yearly wages for women by the median yearly wages for men.

Wage Garnishment:  Wage garnishment refers to the practice of an employee having a certain amount of his or her paycheck deducted to cover specific expenses. A court order needs to be obtained in order for someone to garnish someone else’s wages. Generally, garnishments are needed so that an employee has to pay child support, unpaid court costs, defaulted student loans or other debts. The garnishment will continue until the entire debt is paid off. There are exemptions to this practice. If a garnishment is obtained under federal court, then no more than 25 percent of someone’s weekly earnings can be garnished. In relation to wage garnishment laws, tips are not viewed as employee earnings.

Wage Structure:  Wage structure is the hierarchy within a company that sets the amount each level of employment is paid and what benefits each level is due. Lower-level employees are paid less than other people at the business, and these employees may get an hourly wage as opposed to a set salary. This means that if an employee misses work, then he or she would lose out on those wages. However, these employees are also due overtime if earned. Higher-level individuals at a company are more likely to receive far greater compensation for their work due to the responsibilities they have. Additionally, these individuals may be able to earn better or more benefits.

Waiver:  A waiver is a legal document in which one party relinquishes their right to sue the second party due to any harm or liability. Any number of rights can be temporarily given up by signing a waiver, including contractual, statutory or constitutional rights. If a waiver is brought up in a court of law, it must be determined if the party signing the waiver voluntarily gave up their rights. When rights are voluntarily surrendered, then the document is referred to as an express waiver. Disclaimers are an example of written waivers. Different types of waivers may be sought be companies depending on certain situations such as liability waivers, exculpatory clauses and legal releases.

Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989:  Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989  The Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 was created to protect employees from employer retaliation in the event they have exposed unlawful conduct taking place within the organization. The law is enforced by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and prohibits companies from taking rash actions including suspending, demoting, discharging, and harassing the whistleblower. In the event an organization does retaliate against an employee, they could face a series of punishments involving fines and lawsuits. Other consequences could be loss of reputation and a damaged company image. Under the Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989, employees who have been wrongfully treated, have the option of filing a lawsuit against their employer.

Whiteboard Interview: A candidate, usually in an engineering role, is asked to solve a coding problem on a whiteboard while interviewers ask questions. Whiteboard testing has become controversial as it does not replicate the daily coding environment and often disadvantages women due to unconscious gender bias in male-dominated fields.

Work Experience: The professional record of a job applicant.

Work/life employee benefits: These benefits are related to lifestyle and can include free childcare, gym memberships
and access to free counselling.

Workers Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN) of 1988:  Workers Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN) of 1988  The Workers Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN) of 1988 is a law that requires companies employing more than 100 people, to give terminated employees a 60-day notification of layoffs in the event of a mass downsize. It is important to note that not all layoffs are required to operate according to this law. In special circumstances, a decrease in the notification period may be allowed and there are certain exemptions as well. The 60-day period allows terminated workers to adjust to their situation and have a fair chance at attaining employment elsewhere. While 60-days is required, companies are encouraged to give even more notice if possible.

Workers compensation: This is a type of insurance which compensates employees who are injured at work and
ensures they still receive their wages even if they have time off for the injury, as well as
paying for any medical bills associated with the injury.

Workers' compensation:  Workers’ compensation  Workers’ compensation is a reparation prepared to assist employees who have had to discontinue working due to injuries acquired on the job or illness. This state law assists in providing income benefits to supplement regular earnings for a temporary period of time. Companies are encouraged to invest in adequate workers’ compensation insurance policies to cover such claims in a manner that is efficient and effective for both the employer and the employee. However, some organizations choose to fund certain claims on their own by simply ensuring adequate capital is available for unforeseen circumstances. Replacement benefits are often temporary and the terms and conditions are discussed on a personal basis with the employee receiving assistance.

Workforce planning: Workforce planning is used to predict and analyze the present and future needs of the
company in relation to the workforce and ensure that those needs are met.

Work-life balance: This is a concept in which a healthy balance is struck between how much time and
energy an individual spends on their work life versus their life outside of work. A good
work-life balance consists of a moderate amount of energy and time spent on both
aspects of a person’s life, in order to reduce stress and burnout and increase an
individual’s overall happiness.

Workplace bullying:  Workplace bullying  Workplace bullying is when an individual’s (or group of individuals) behavior is abusive, insulting, or offensive to others. Such behavior may be perceived as threatening, dangerous, racist, or irrational to the person or group at which it is directed. While workplace bullying can obstruct everyone’s ability to work safely and efficiently, it can also be damaging to a company’s reputation, capabilities, and capacity to serve its customers. Companies should have a policy in place to allow individuals to confidentially disclose unfair treatment without the concern of facing retaliation or threats. Additionally, such a policy can aid in encouraging fair treatment of others and full exposure of activity taking place within the organization.

Workplace flexibility:  Workplace flexibility   A company is said to have workplace flexibility when they acknowledge employees’ needs to deal with unforeseen circumstances in regards to scheduling. An example of such flexibility is allowing employees to give input when creating schedules and allotting shifts. Other examples include making exceptions for unforeseen family circumstances and personal needs, or allowing employees to do part of their work at home. Organizations who implement workplace flexibility may enjoy benefits such as increased employee productivity, trusted loyalty for both the employer and the employee, and a higher quality of life for all parties involved. With improved retention and an investment in employee morale, companies can gain a competitive advantage by giving employees more flexibility.

Workplace violence:  Workplace violence  Workplace violence is behavior that is harmful, dangerous, or threatening to employees of a company. Often, this kind of activity occurs in relation to disputes related to work, and while actions may be directed at a specific person or group of people, they pose a threat and potential harm to all employees. Companies can avoid workplace violence by encouraging respectful and fair treatment of every individual within the organization. Employers should encourage their employees to confidentially disclose questionable or dangerous behavior in a setting that is private, controlled, and safe. Avoiding workplace violence is important for companies to effectively provide an environment that is productive, safe, and reputable.

Wrongful discharge:  Wrongful discharge  Wrongful discharge occurs when a company unjustly terminates an employee based off of unfounded reasoning. An employee can claim unfair discharge when his termination results from a breached contract regardless of whether it was written or oral. Public policy violations are also considered wrongful discharge and can land a company in hot water. It is important for organizations to be mindful that unfair termination is an exception to the at-will employment policy. When a company chooses to terminate an employee, careful thought should be taken to determine that the grounds for discharge are justified, fair, and in alignment with laws enacted to protect employees.

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Executive Search: Y

Yield ratio: This is the percentage of candidates that make it to the next stage of the hiring process.

Executive Search: Z

Zero-based budgeting:  Zero-based budgeting   A zero-based budgeting system is a unique way of funding activities within an organization that begins with no funds. When an organization recognizes the need to fund an activity, analysis will be completed to provide justification for that activity. From here, an appropriate budget will be created and the adequate funds will be allocated to complete the activity. Zero-based budgeting has many benefits including the detection of budgets that are inflated, and the ability to motivate employees to find cost-effective solutions and undertake responsible decision-making in relation to financial choices. Additionally, with the efficient allocation of valuable resources, companies can gain a competitive advantage.

Zoom: an abbreviation for ZoomInfo which is a subscription-based software as a service company that sells access to its database of information about business people and companies to sales, marketing and recruiting professionals.

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